Basic Federal Budgeting Terminology (open access)

Basic Federal Budgeting Terminology

In its most elemental form, the federal budget is a comprehensive accounting of the government’s spending, revenues, and borrowing. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the basic terminology and concepts used in the federal budget process.
Date: April 27, 1998
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
System: The UNT Digital Library
The Role of the President in Budget Development (open access)

The Role of the President in Budget Development

The Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 established the executive budget process, which requires the President to prepare and submit a comprehensive federal budget to Congress each year for the fiscal year that begins on October 1. The President sets out his national priorities and proposes policy initiatives in the federal budget submitted to Congress soon after Congress convenes in January. The President's budget submission provides him the opportunity to influence the agenda for the upcoming budget and policy debate in Congress.
Date: April 27, 1999
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts (open access)

Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts

This report contains information regarding the Current Economic Conditions, Recent Macroeconomic Developments, Posture of Monetary and Fiscal Policy, Summary of Current Developments, Sources of GDP Growth, Economic Forecasts 2001, and Promotion of Economic Growth. The report also presents statistics regarding the Growth Rate of Real GDP v. Final Sales, Civilian Unemployment Rate, Rate of Change in the Consumer Price Index, Rate of Change in the GDP Deflators, Rate of Change in Labor Costs, U.S. Foreign Trade Deficit, Alternative Measures of Fiscal Policy, The Growth Rates of the Monetary Aggregates, etc.
Date: April 27, 2001
Creator: Makinen, Gail
System: The UNT Digital Library
Census 2000: The Sampling Debate (open access)

Census 2000: The Sampling Debate

Plans by the Bureau of the Census to incorporate data from two new sample surveys into the 2000 decennial census count have had a mixed congressional reception. Three sampling bills in the 105th Congress (H.R. 1220, H.R. 1178, and H.R. 776) have been referred to committee, without further action. Sampling has been debated chiefly in the appropriations process (H.R. 1469, H.R. 1871 [P.L. 105-18; 111 Stat. 158], and H.R. 2267/S. 1022 [P.L. 105-119; 111 Stat. 2440]). The bureau now is a defendant in two anti-sampling suits brought under P.L. 105-119. The law also established a Census Monitoring Board and directed the bureau to prepare for a traditional headcount in 2000, not just to continue with its sampling plans.
Date: April 27, 1998
Creator: Williams, Jennifer D.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Natural Resource "Subsidy" Issues (open access)

Natural Resource "Subsidy" Issues

In 1993, the Clinton Administration proposed eliminating many natural resource "subsidies" and increasing fees for many Federal services. Among the proposals advanced were increases in existing grazing and recreation fees and new mining and commercial fishing fees. Other proposals would have affected timber sales and water deliveries from Federal projects. Many of these proposals have been advanced by fiscal conservatives in the 104th Congress to reduce the Federal budget deficit.
Date: April 27, 1995
Creator: Gorte, Ross W.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Voting on NTR for China Again in 2001, and Past Congressional Decisions (open access)

Voting on NTR for China Again in 2001, and Past Congressional Decisions

Since 1990, Congress has faced an annual, contentious decision on whether, and under what conditions, to renew normal trade relations (NTR) status with China for another year. This annual exercise occurred because under U.S. law, China's NTR status is temporary, and the President has to recommend its renewal each year by June 3. In 2000, the 106th Congress considered and passed H.R. 4444, which would eliminate the annual NTR renewal process and grant permanent NTR to China. The President signed the bill into law on October 10, 2000, as P.L. 106-286. But this Act only grants permanent NTR to China once it joins the World Trade Organization. Although this was expected to occur by late 2000, it has not yet happened and is now unlikely to occur until the end of 2001. Consequently, the President again this year will be compelled to recommend another temporary extension of China's NTR status for one year if this status is to continue uninterrupted. The NTR renewal is subject to enactment of a joint resolution of disapproval by Congress.
Date: April 27, 2001
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
System: The UNT Digital Library
Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty Demarcation and Succession Agreements: Background and Issues (open access)

Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty Demarcation and Succession Agreements: Background and Issues

This report discusses the content of and issues related to the ABM Treaty Succession and Demarcation Agreements signed in September 1997.
Date: April 27, 2000
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Gasoline Prices: Policies and Proposals (open access)

Gasoline Prices: Policies and Proposals

This report gives information related to Gasoline prices and also discusses Policies and Proposals.
Date: April 27, 2005
Creator: Behrens, Carl E. & Glover, Carol
System: The UNT Digital Library
Medal of Honor Recipients: 1979-2005 (open access)

Medal of Honor Recipients: 1979-2005

None
Date: April 27, 2005
Creator: Gomez, Julissa
System: The UNT Digital Library
Environmental Protection Issues in the 109th Congress (open access)

Environmental Protection Issues in the 109th Congress

Environmental protection concerns span a wide variety of issues, including clean air, water quality, chemical security, and environmental aspects of other major issue areas such as transportation and defense. This issue brief provides an overview of key environmental issues that are receiving or may receive attention in the 109th Congress. The sections on specific issues contain references to more detailed and extensive CRS reports on the subjects covered.
Date: April 27, 2005
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R. & Isler, Margaret M.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Caribbean Region: Issues in U.S. Relations (open access)

Caribbean Region: Issues in U.S. Relations

This report deals with broader issues in U.S. relations with the Caribbean and does not include an extensive discussion of Haiti and Cuba. U.S. policy toward these Caribbean nations is covered in two CRS products: CRS Report RL32294, Haiti: Developments and U.S. Policy Since 1991 and Current Congressional Concerns, and CRS Report RL32730, Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress.
Date: April 27, 2005
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Palestinian Education and Debate Over Textbooks (open access)

Palestinian Education and Debate Over Textbooks

Palestinian education reform is seen to be a key element in the PalestinianIsraeli peace process. Many observers frequently have expressed concern that the Palestinian Authority (PA) education curriculum incites a younger generation of Palestinians to reject Israel, Judaism, and the achievement of peace in the region. Furthermore, some analysts and policymakers maintain that Palestinian education reform is not only important for Israeli-Palestinian peace, but also for broader U.S. interests in the region. From their perspective, a diverse, balanced curriculum may serve as a benchmark towards greater peace, democratization, and the development of a vibrant civil society in the Palestinian Territories.
Date: April 27, 2005
Creator: Pina, Aaron D.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Pakistan-U.S. Relations (open access)

Pakistan-U.S. Relations

None
Date: April 27, 2005
Creator: Kronstadt, K. Alan
System: The UNT Digital Library
Discretionary Spending: Prospects and History (open access)

Discretionary Spending: Prospects and History

Federal spending has changed, both in size and composition over the last 40 years. Total federal spending is now a larger percentage of the economy (as measured by gross domestic product — GDP) than it was in 1965 (19.8% of GDP vs 17.2% of GDP). Mandatory spending (generally spending that result from laws other than appropriations acts, such as Social Security and Medicare), has grown substantially, both as a percentage of GDP and as a percentage of total spending to become, today, the largest component of federal spending. Mandatory spending, without significant changes to the programs composing it, will continue growing as a percentage of GDP and as a percentage of total outlays into the future.
Date: April 27, 2005
Creator: Winters, Philip D.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Omnibus Appropriations Act: Overview of Recent Practices (open access)

Omnibus Appropriations Act: Overview of Recent Practices

Omnibus appropriations acts have become a significant feature of the legislative process in recent years as Congress and the President have used them more frequently to bring action on the regular appropriations cycle to a close. Following a discussion of pertinent background information, this report reviews the recent enactment of such measures and briefly addresses several issues raised by their use.
Date: April 27, 2005
Creator: Keith, Robert
System: The UNT Digital Library
Energy: Useful Facts and Numbers (open access)

Energy: Useful Facts and Numbers

Energy supplies and prices are a major economic factor in the United States, and energy markets are volatile and unpredictable. For both these reasons, energy policy is of frequent interest to the Congress. This report presents a statistical view of the supply and consumption of various forms of energy. After an introductory overview of aggregate energy consumption, the report presents detailed analysis of trends and statistics regarding specific energy sources: oil, electricity, natural gas, and coal. A section on trends in energy efficiency is also presented.
Date: April 27, 2005
Creator: Glover, Carol & Behrens, Carl E.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Chemical Warfare: A Primer on Agents, Munitions, and Defensive Measures (open access)

Chemical Warfare: A Primer on Agents, Munitions, and Defensive Measures

The recent Department of Defense proposal to develop a capability to modernize and expand the current U.S. chemical warfare munition stocks with binary nerve agent munitions has focused attention on the subject of chemical warfare. This paper provides a brief introductory discussion of modern chemical warfare, describing the types of agents, delivery methods, and defense against chemical agents. It does not discuss policy, strategy, tactics, or disarmament aspects of chemical warfare. These issues w i l l be covered i n CRS Issue Brief IB 8l08l .
Date: April 27, 1981
Creator: Kallis, E. M.
System: The UNT Digital Library
The Constitutionality of the Withdrawal of All Federal Court Jurisdiction Over Questions Involving State-Sponsored Prayer in Public Schools and Public Buildings (open access)

The Constitutionality of the Withdrawal of All Federal Court Jurisdiction Over Questions Involving State-Sponsored Prayer in Public Schools and Public Buildings

This report discusses several court decisions regarding the constitutionality of the withdrawal of all Federal Court Jurisdiction over questions involving state-sponsored prayer in Public Schools and Public Buildings.
Date: April 27, 1979
Creator: Ackerman, David M.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Trade Agreements: Impact on the U.S. Economy (open access)

Trade Agreements: Impact on the U.S. Economy

None
Date: April 27, 2005
Creator: Jackson, James K.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (open access)

Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

A comprehensive test ban treaty, or CTBT, is the oldest item on the nuclear arms control agenda. Three treaties currently limit testing to underground only, with a maximum force equal to 150,000 tons of TNT. According to the Natural Resources Defense Council, the United States conducted 1,030 nuclear tests, the Soviet Union 715, the United Kingdom 45, France 210, and China 45. The last U.S. test was held in 1992; the last U.K. test, in 1991. Russia claims it has not conducted nuclear tests since 1991.
Date: April 27, 2006
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
System: The UNT Digital Library
Compensation for Crime Victims (open access)

Compensation for Crime Victims

This report discusses the growing interest in recent years in providing compensation for the innocent victims of violent crime through programs financed by the Federal and/or State Governments. At issue have been the general propriety, desirability, and feasibility, as well as the cost, of Federal support of such programs.
Date: April 27, 1984
Creator: Cavanagh, M. Suzanne
System: The UNT Digital Library
Infant Formula: National Problems (open access)

Infant Formula: National Problems

This report discusses congressional concerns regarding infant formula that was deficient in a required nutrient.
Date: April 27, 1984
Creator: Porter, Donna V.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) Vehicles: Background and Issues for  Congress (open access)

Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

In late 2007, the Department of Defense (DOD) launched a major procurement initiative to replace most uparmored High Mobility, Multi-Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWVs) in Iraq with Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) vehicles by FY2009. MRAPs have been described as providing significantly more protection against Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) than uparmored HMMWVs. DOD's decision to acquire a new, smaller MRAP variant for use in Afghanistan; MRAP mechanical, logistical, and readiness concerns could be potential policy issues for congressional consideration. This report will be updated.
Date: April 27, 2009
Creator: Feickert, Andrew
System: The UNT Digital Library
Federal Tort Claims Act (open access)

Federal Tort Claims Act

The Federal Tort Claims Act is the statute by which the United States authorizes tort suits to be brought against itself. With exceptions, it makes the United States liable for injuries caused by the negligent or wrongful act or omission of any federal employee acting within the scope of his employment, in accordance with the law of the state where the act or omission occurred. This report discusses, among other things, the application of the Feres doctrine to suits for injuries caused by medical malpractice in the military, the prohibition of suits by victims of atomic testing, Supreme Court cases interpreting the discretionary function exception, the extent to which federal employees may be held liable for torts they commit in the scope of their employment, and the government contractor defense to products liability design defect suits.
Date: April 27, 2009
Creator: Cohen, Henry & Cohen, Henry
System: The UNT Digital Library