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8. Innovative Technologies: Two-Phase Heat Transfer in Water-Based Nanofluids for Nuclear Applications Final Report (open access)

8. Innovative Technologies: Two-Phase Heat Transfer in Water-Based Nanofluids for Nuclear Applications Final Report

Abstract Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in water. Many studies have reported very significant enhancement (up to 200%) of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling of nanofluids (You et al. 2003, Vassallo et al. 2004, Bang and Chang 2005, Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2007). These observations have generated considerable interest in nanofluids as potential coolants for more compact and efficient thermal management systems. Potential Light Water Reactor applications include the primary coolant, safety systems and severe accident management strategies, as reported in other papers (Buongiorno et al. 2008 and 2009). However, the situation of interest in reactor applications is often flow boiling, for which no nanofluid data have been reported so far. In this project we investigated the potential of nanofluids to enhance CHF in flow boiling. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer and CHF experiments were performed with low concentrations of alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanoparticles in water (≤ 0.1 % by volume) at atmospheric pressure. It was found that for comparable test conditions the values of the nanofluid and water heat transfer coefficient (HTC) are similar (within 20%). The HTC increased with mass flux and heat flux for water and nanofluids alike, …
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: Buongiorno, Jacopo & Hu, Lin-wen
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
An Aerial Radiological Survey of Selected Areas of Area 18 - Nevada Test Site (open access)

An Aerial Radiological Survey of Selected Areas of Area 18 - Nevada Test Site

As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of selected areas of Area 18 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the purpose of mapping man-made radiation deposited as a result of the Johnnie Boy and Little Feller I tests. The survey area centered over the Johnnie Boy ground zero but also included the ground zero and deposition area of the Little Feller I test, approximately 7,000 feet (2133 meters) southeast of the Johnnie Boy site. The survey was conducted in one flight. The completed survey covered a total of 4.0 square miles. The flight lines (with the turns) over the surveyed areas are presented in Figure 1. One 2.5-hour-long flight was performed at an altitude of 100 ft above ground level (AGL) with 200 foot flight-line spacing. A test-line flight was conducted near the Desert Rock Airstrip to ensure quality control of the data. The test line is not shown in Figure 1. However, Figure 1 does include the flight lines for a ''perimeter'' flight. The path traced by the helicopter flying over distinct roads within …
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: Lyons, Craig
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
The Altus Times (Altus, Okla.), Vol. 111, No. 277, Ed. 1 Friday, July 31, 2009 (open access)

The Altus Times (Altus, Okla.), Vol. 111, No. 277, Ed. 1 Friday, July 31, 2009

Daily newspaper from Altus, Oklahoma that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: Bush, Michael
Object Type: Newspaper
System: The Gateway to Oklahoma History
Annual Groundwater Detection Monitoring Report for the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (2008) (open access)

Annual Groundwater Detection Monitoring Report for the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (2008)

This report presents the data collected for groundwater detection monitoring at the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) during calendar year 2008. The detection-monitoring program developed for the ICDF groundwater-monitoring wells is applicable to six wells completed in the uppermost portion of the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Five wells downgradient of the ICDF and one well upgradient. The ICDF detection-monitoring program was established to meet the substantive requirements of Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 264.97 and 264.98, which are applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements under CERCLA. Semiannal groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for indicator parameters in March and September. The indicator parameters focus on constituents that are found in higher concentrations in ICDF leachate than in groundwater (bicarbonate alkalinity, sulfate, U-233, and U-238). The only detection monitoring limits that were exceeded were for bicarbonate alkalinity. Bicarbonate alkalinity is naturally occuring in groundwater. Bicarbonate alkalinity found in ICDF detection monitoring wells is not a result of waste migration from the ICDF landfill or the evaporation pond. The U.S. Department of Energy will continue with detection monitoring for the ICDF, which is semiannual sampling for indicator parameters.
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: Cahn, Lorie
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Annual Groundwater Detection Monitoring Report for the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (2008) (open access)

Annual Groundwater Detection Monitoring Report for the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (2008)

This report presents the data collected for groundwater detection monitoring at the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) during calendar year 2008. The detection-monitoring program developed for the ICDF groundwater-monitoring wells is applicable to six wells completed in the uppermost portion of the Snake River Plain Aquifer − five wells downgradient of the ICDF and one well upgradient. The ICDF detection-monitoring program was established to meet the substantive requirements of Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 264.97 and 264.98, which are applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements under CERCLA. Semiannual groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for indicator parameters in March and September. The indicator parameters focus on constituents that are found in higher concentrations in ICDF leachate than in groundwater (bicarbonate alkalinity, sulfate, U-233, U-234, and U-238). The only detection monitoring limits that were exceeded were for bicarbonate alkalinity. Bicarbonate alkalinity is naturally occurring in groundwater. Bicarbonate alkalinity found in ICDF detection monitoring wells is not a result of waste migration from the ICDF landfill or the evaporation pond. The U.S. Department of Energy will continue with detection monitoring for the ICDF, which is semiannual sampling for indicator parameters.
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: Cahn, Lorie
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
The Baytown Sun (Baytown, Tex.), Vol. 89, No. 212, Ed. 1 Friday, July 31, 2009 (open access)

The Baytown Sun (Baytown, Tex.), Vol. 89, No. 212, Ed. 1 Friday, July 31, 2009

Daily newspaper from Baytown, Texas that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: Clements, Clifford E.
Object Type: Newspaper
System: The Portal to Texas History
The Boerne Star (Boerne, Tex.), Vol. 103, No. 61, Ed. 1 Friday, July 31, 2009 (open access)

The Boerne Star (Boerne, Tex.), Vol. 103, No. 61, Ed. 1 Friday, July 31, 2009

Semiweekly newspaper from Boerne, Texas that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: Cartwright, Brian & Velvin, Candace E.
Object Type: Newspaper
System: The Portal to Texas History
The Challenge of Getting What You Asked For (open access)

The Challenge of Getting What You Asked For

This report talks about Integrated Safety Management Summit i Knoxville, TN
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: P.M., Mceahern
Object Type: Article
System: The UNT Digital Library
Climate Change: The Role of the U.S. Agriculture Sector and Congressional Action (open access)

Climate Change: The Role of the U.S. Agriculture Sector and Congressional Action

This report is organized in three parts. First, it discusses the extent of GHG emissions associated with the U.S. agriculture sector, and cites current and potential estimates for U.S. agricultural soils to sequester carbon and partly offset national GHG emissions. Second, the report describes the types of land management and farm conservation practices that can reduce GHG emissions and/or sequester carbon in agricultural soils, highlighting those practices that are currently promoted under existing voluntary federal agricultural programs. Finally, the report describes legislative action within the ongoing climate change debate as well as enacted changes in the 2008 farm bill (Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, P.L. 110-246) that could expand the scope of existing farm and forestry conservation programs in ways that could more broadly encompass certain aspects of these climate change initiatives. The report concludes with a discussion of some of the types of questions that may be raised regarding the role of the U.S. agriculture sector in the broader climate change debate.
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: Johnson, Renée
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (open access)

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Waste Disposal Sites' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Closure activities were conducted from December 2008 to April 2009 according to the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 139 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 139, 'Waste Disposal Sites,' consists of seven CASs in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities …
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: National Security Technologies, LLC
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Contingency Contract Management: DOD Needs to Develop and Finalize Background Screening and Other Standards for Private Security Contractors (open access)

Contingency Contract Management: DOD Needs to Develop and Finalize Background Screening and Other Standards for Private Security Contractors

A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Currently in Iraq, there are thousands of private security contractor (PSC) personnel supporting DOD and State, many of whom are foreign nationals. Congressional concerns about the selection, training, equipping, and conduct of personnel performing private security functions in Iraq are reflected in a provision in the fiscal year 2008 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) that directs DOD to develop guidance on PSCs. This report examines the extent (1) that DOD and State have developed and implemented policies and procedures to ensure that the backgrounds of PSC employees have been screened and (2) that DOD has developed guidance to implement the provisions of the NDAA and (3) that DOD and State have addressed measures on other issues related to PSC employees in Iraq. To address these objectives, GAO reviewed DOD and State guidance, policies, and contract oversight documentation and interviewed agency and private security industry officials."
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (open access)

Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the 92-Acre Area, the southeast quadrant of the Radioactive Waste Management Site, located in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 92-Acre Area includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 92-Acre Area, which includes CAU 111. The result of the DQO process was that the 92-Acre Area is sufficiently characterized to provide the input data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) without the collection of additional data. The DQOs are included as Appendix A of this document. This CADD/CAP identifies and provides the rationale for the recommended CAA for the 92-Acre Area, provides the plan for implementing the CAA, and details the post-closure plan. When approved, this CADD/CAP will supersede the existing Pit 3 (P03) Closure Plan, which was developed in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities.' This document will also serve as the Closure Plan and the Post-Closure Plan, which are required by 40 CFR 265, for the 92-Acre Area. …
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: National Security Technologies, LLC
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Dallas Voice (Dallas, Tex.), Vol. 26, No. 11, Ed. 1 Friday, July 31, 2009 (open access)

Dallas Voice (Dallas, Tex.), Vol. 26, No. 11, Ed. 1 Friday, July 31, 2009

Weekly newspaper from Dallas, Texas that includes local, state, and national news and advertising of interest to the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) community.
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: Nash, Tammye
Object Type: Newspaper
System: The UNT Digital Library
DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS (open access)

DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS

Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period. The 55-gallon drums are of several designs with Type 304 stainless steel as the material of construction. The tanks have capacities ranging from 8000 to 45600 gallons and are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The drums and tanks were designed and fabricated to national regulations, codes and standards per procurement specifications for the Savannah River Site. The drums have had approximately 25 leakage failures over their 50+ years of use with the last drum failure occurring in 2003. The tanks have experienced no leaks to date. The failures in the drums have occurred principally near the bottom weld, which attaches the bottom to the drum sidewall. Failures have occurred by pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and are attributable, in part, to the presence of chloride ions in the heavy water. Probable degradation mechanisms for the continued storage of …
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: Mickalonis, J. & Vormelker, P.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Development of Biomimetic Membranes for Near Zero PC Power Plant Emissions (open access)

Development of Biomimetic Membranes for Near Zero PC Power Plant Emissions

The first objective of this project was to develop, evaluate and compare two different CO2 separation (capture) systems. The second was to carry the preferred solution to pre-pilot development and testing. To achieve these objectives we undertook several infrastructure enabling elements: (1) development of a preferred catalyst coupled with its immobilization onto a microporous polymer membrane, (2) design and development of a microporous membrane-based, contained liquid membrane permeator and a membrane-based absorber/desorber apparatus, (3) development of a resin-wafer electrodialytic absorber/desorber apparatus, (4) development and demonstration of a pre-treatment process to condition the feed gas stream, (5) and development of computer modeling of the components and of the integrated system. The first technology was an enzyme catalyzed, membrane supported, contained liquid membrane apparatus whose gas capture was pressure/vacuum and temperature driven. A first embodiment was as a permeator, i.e. a combined absorber/desorber in a single housing. The second embodiment was as discrete absorber and desorber units. The second technology was an enzyme catalyzed, ion exchange resin wafer electrodialytically-based separation. For each of these technologies the objective was to design, manufacture, test and demonstrate the apparatus, first in the laboratory and then at pre-pilot scale, and to run it for sufficient time …
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: Trachtenberg, Michael; Cowan, Robert; Smith, David & Sider, Ira
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Disaster Recovery: Experiences from Past Disasters Offer Insights for Effective Collaboration after Catastrophic Events (open access)

Disaster Recovery: Experiences from Past Disasters Offer Insights for Effective Collaboration after Catastrophic Events

A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In the wake of the 2005 Gulf Coast Hurricanes, coordination and collaboration challenges created obstacles during the government's response and recovery efforts. Because of the many stakeholders involved in recovery, including all levels of government, it is critical to build collaborative relationships. Building on GAO's September 2008 report which provided several key recovery practices from past catastrophic disasters, this report presents examples of how federal, state, and local governments have effectively collaborated in the past. GAO reviewed five catastrophic disasters--the Loma Prieta earthquake (California, 1989), Hurricane Andrew (Florida, 1992), the Northridge earthquake (California, 1994), the Kobe earthquake (Japan, 1995), and the Grand Forks/Red River flood (North Dakota and Minnesota, 1997)--to identify recovery lessons. GAO interviewed officials involved in the recovery from these disasters and experts on disaster recovery. GAO also reviewed relevant legislation, policies, and the disaster recovery literature."
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Dynamic Simulation and Optimization of Nuclear Hydrogen Production Systems (open access)

Dynamic Simulation and Optimization of Nuclear Hydrogen Production Systems

This project is part of a research effort to design a hydrogen plant and its interface with a nuclear reactor. This project developed a dynamic modeling, simulation and optimization environment for nuclear hydrogen production systems. A hybrid discrete/continuous model captures both the continuous dynamics of the nuclear plant, the hydrogen plant, and their interface, along with discrete events such as major upsets. This hybrid model makes us of accurate thermodynamic sub-models for the description of phase and reaction equilibria in the thermochemical reactor. Use of the detailed thermodynamic models will allow researchers to examine the process in detail and have confidence in the accurary of the property package they use.
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: Barton, Paul I.; Kaximi, Mujid S.; Bollas, Georgios & Munoz, Patricio Ramirez
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
The Express-Star (Chickasha, Okla.), Ed. 1 Friday, July 31, 2009 (open access)

The Express-Star (Chickasha, Okla.), Ed. 1 Friday, July 31, 2009

Daily newspaper from Chickasha, Oklahoma that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: Pittman, Jerry & Wray, Kelly
Object Type: Newspaper
System: The Gateway to Oklahoma History
Fast Tree: Computing Large Minimum-Evolution Trees with Profiles instead of a Distance Matrix (open access)

Fast Tree: Computing Large Minimum-Evolution Trees with Profiles instead of a Distance Matrix

Gene families are growing rapidly, but standard methods for inferring phylogenies do not scale to alignments with over 10,000 sequences. We present FastTree, a method for constructing large phylogenies and for estimating their reliability. Instead of storing a distance matrix, FastTree stores sequence profiles of internal nodes in the tree. FastTree uses these profiles to implement neighbor-joining and uses heuristics to quickly identify candidate joins. FastTree then uses nearest-neighbor interchanges to reduce the length of the tree. For an alignment with N sequences, L sites, and a different characters, a distance matrix requires O(N^2) space and O(N^2 L) time, but FastTree requires just O( NLa + N sqrt(N) ) memory and O( N sqrt(N) log(N) L a ) time. To estimate the tree's reliability, FastTree uses local bootstrapping, which gives another 100-fold speedup over a distance matrix. For example, FastTree computed a tree and support values for 158,022 distinct 16S ribosomal RNAs in 17 hours and 2.4 gigabytes of memory. Just computing pairwise Jukes-Cantor distances and storing them, without inferring a tree or bootstrapping, would require 17 hours and 50 gigabytes of memory. In simulations, FastTree was slightly more accurate than neighbor joining, BIONJ, or FastME; on genuine alignments, FastTree's …
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: N. Price, Morgan; S. Dehal, Paramvir & P. Arkin, Adam
Object Type: Article
System: The UNT Digital Library
FY2010 Appropriations: District of Columbia (open access)

FY2010 Appropriations: District of Columbia

This is a report on the appropriations of the budget allocated for the district of columbia in the fiscal year 2010.
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: Boyd, Eugene
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
The Greensheet (Dallas, Tex.), Vol. 33, No. 118, Ed. 1 Friday, July 31, 2009 (open access)

The Greensheet (Dallas, Tex.), Vol. 33, No. 118, Ed. 1 Friday, July 31, 2009

Free weekly newspaper that includes business and classified advertising.
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: unknown
Object Type: Newspaper
System: The Portal to Texas History
The Greensheet (Dallas, Tex.), Vol. 33, No. 119, Ed. 1 Friday, July 31, 2009 (open access)

The Greensheet (Dallas, Tex.), Vol. 33, No. 119, Ed. 1 Friday, July 31, 2009

Free weekly newspaper that includes business and classified advertising.
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: unknown
Object Type: Newspaper
System: The Portal to Texas History
The Greensheet (Houston, Tex.), Vol. 40, No. 310, Ed. 1 Friday, July 31, 2009 (open access)

The Greensheet (Houston, Tex.), Vol. 40, No. 310, Ed. 1 Friday, July 31, 2009

Free weekly newspaper that includes business and classified advertising.
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: unknown
Object Type: Newspaper
System: The Portal to Texas History
The Greensheet (Houston, Tex.), Vol. 40, No. 311, Ed. 1 Friday, July 31, 2009 (open access)

The Greensheet (Houston, Tex.), Vol. 40, No. 311, Ed. 1 Friday, July 31, 2009

Free weekly newspaper that includes business and classified advertising.
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: unknown
Object Type: Newspaper
System: The Portal to Texas History