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Abortion Procedures (open access)

Abortion Procedures

The Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 1997, H.R. 1122 was vetoed by President Clinton on October 10, 1997. This legislation would have made it a federal crime, punishable by fine and/or incarceration, for a physician to perform a partial birth abortion unless it was necessary to save the life of a mother whose life is endangered by a physical disorder, illness, or injury. The partial-birth abortion legislation has stimulated a great deal of controversy. This report provides a brief overview of the abortion methods currently in use for which data have been published and some positions on the partial birth abortion legislation.
Date: November 17, 1997
Creator: Stith-Coleman, Irene
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Older Americans Act: 105th Congress Issues (open access)

Older Americans Act: 105th Congress Issues

None
Date: October 28, 1997
Creator: O'Shaughnessy, Carol
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Medicare: Payments to HMOs and Other Private Plans Under the Medicare+Choice Program (open access)

Medicare: Payments to HMOs and Other Private Plans Under the Medicare+Choice Program

This report describes how payments will be calculated under the Medicare+Choice program established under the new law.
Date: September 18, 1997
Creator: Smith, Madeleine T.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Medicare: Private Contracts (open access)

Medicare: Private Contracts

This report discusses private contracting for medicare,which is the term used to describe situations where a physician and a patient agree not to submit a claim for a service which would otherwise be covered and paid for by Medicare.
Date: October 21, 1997
Creator: O'Sullivan, Jennifer & Echeverria, Cecilia O
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Conservation Reserve Program: Status and Policy Issues (open access)

Conservation Reserve Program: Status and Policy Issues

The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), enacted in 1985, enables producers to bid to retire highly erodible or environmentally sensitive cropland, usually for 10 years. Participants receive annual rental and cost-sharing payments, and technical assistance to install approved plantings. Up to 36.4 million acres have been enrolled; current enrollment is estimated to be 32.9 million acres.
Date: February 24, 1997
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Agricultural Research, Education, Extension and Economics Programs: A Primer (open access)

Agricultural Research, Education, Extension and Economics Programs: A Primer

The 105th Congress is undertaking a thorough review of federal laws and policies affecting the nationwide system of federal and state agricultural research laboratories and agencies, the land grant Colleges of Agriculture and related schools of forestry and veterinary medicine, and the continuing education programs of the Cooperative Extension System. In preparation for hearings and subsequent debate on these subjects, this report provides an overview of all the components of the system, its major programs, and its funding.
Date: March 4, 1997
Creator: Rawson, Jean M.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Conservation Reserve Program - Preliminary Results from the 15th Signup (open access)

Conservation Reserve Program - Preliminary Results from the 15th Signup

This report includes a table listing, by state, the: Number of bids, or offers, received; Total acres offered for enrollment; Acres offered that are currently enrolled in the CRP; Acres offered are not currently enrolled in the CRP; Acres on which contracts expire on September 30, 1997; Percentage of acres currently in the program that were offered for reenrollment; and Percentage of acres offered that are not currently enrolled in the CRP.
Date: April 18, 1997
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Attorneys' Fees in the State Tobacco Litigation Cases (open access)

Attorneys' Fees in the State Tobacco Litigation Cases

In the past few years, many states have filed complaints against the tobacco industry in state court to recover Medicaid costs paid by the states to treat their citizens for tobacco related illnesses. The states are also attempting to recover other damages, such as punitive damages, against the tobacco industry. For various reasons, the states have hired private attorneys to assist the state Attorneys General in prosecuting these cases. In most cases, the retention of private counsel has included a fee agreement specifying the amount of compensation that these attorneys will receive for their services. These agreements are not uniform among the states, but most tend to provide some form of contingency fee arrangement. Some of these states have developed a sliding scale contingency fee schedule which varies with the amount of time spent on the litigation and whether a trial has begun. This report briefly summarizes the different fee agreements that the states have with private counsel.
Date: September 23, 1997
Creator: Contrubis, John
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws (open access)

Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws

This report includes a glossary of approximately 1,700 agriculture and related terms (e.g., food programs, conservation, forestry, environmental protection, etc.). Besides defining terms and phrases with specialized meanings for agriculture, the glossary also identifies acronyms, agencies, programs, and laws related to agriculture.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Womach, Jasper
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Agricultural Exports: Technical Barriers to Trade (open access)

Agricultural Exports: Technical Barriers to Trade

Technical barriers to trade (TBTs) are widely divergent measures that countries use to regulate rnarkets, protect their consumers, and preserve natural resources, but which can also discriminate against imports in favor of domestic products. Most TBTs in agriculture are sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures designed to protect humans, animals, and plants from contaminants, diseases, and pests. In the wake of new trade agreements aimed at reducing tariffs, import quotas, and other trade barriers, TBTs have become more prominent concerns for agricultural exporters and policymakers.
Date: October 21, 1997
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion: Methyl Bromide Control Measures (open access)

Stratospheric Ozone Depletion: Methyl Bromide Control Measures

This report is intended to help the reader follow changes over time in regulations domestic and international - governing methyl bromide for its potential ozone-depleting effects. Methyl bromide, like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), has been implicated by scientists in contributing to stratospheric ozone depletion, which may pose health threats to living organisms due to increased exposure to harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Methyl bromide is currently used widely as a pesticide in international agricultural commerce.
Date: October 16, 1997
Creator: Morrissey, Wayne A.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Nitrogen Oxides and Electric Utilities: Revising the NSPS (open access)

Nitrogen Oxides and Electric Utilities: Revising the NSPS

Under the Clean Air Act (CAA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from utility boilers, combustion turbines, and combined-cycle units. The current NOx NSPS, set in 1979, does not reflect subsequent advancements in Nox control technology. As a part of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments,
Date: July 25, 1997
Creator: Parker, Larry
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Global Climate Change Treaty: Negotiations and Related Issues (open access)

Global Climate Change Treaty: Negotiations and Related Issues

This report discusses the negotiations leading the Kyoto conference of the parties. The United States and other parties to the 1992 Climate Change Convention signed at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro will meet December 1-12 in Kyoto, Japan, to conclude year-long negotiations on a legally binding protocol or amendment to reduce or stabilize emissions of greenhouse gas emissions. The U.S. proposal to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases to 1990 levels between 2008-2012 is less ambitious than environmentalists and many other treaty Parties urge, but represents a commitment that others, including many in business, fear could damage the economy. A key aspect of the negotiations also is what should be expected of developing nations, whose current emissions of greenhouse gases are relatively small, but are expected to increase rapidly over the next decade with economic development. A sense of the Senate resolution calls for all countries to meet scheduled reductions, and would agree to U.S. participation only if harm to the domestic economy is avoided. If agreement is reached in Kyoto, Senate approval would be required for U.S. ratification, and legislation to implement commitments would also likely be necessary.
Date: November 21, 1997
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Global Climate Change: The Role of U.S. Foreign Assistance (open access)

Global Climate Change: The Role of U.S. Foreign Assistance

This report discusses the role of U.S. foreign assistance to reduce emissions of the greenhouse gases that most experts believe cause global warming
Date: November 21, 1997
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Air Quality: EPA's Proposed New Ozone and Particulate Matter Standards (open access)

Air Quality: EPA's Proposed New Ozone and Particulate Matter Standards

This report discusses the contentious issue of enforcing stringent national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter (PM), the opponents of which decry as harmful to the economy. The report discusses actions undertaken by the EPA, President Clinton's support of the NAAQSs, and the criticisms of opponents.
Date: June 27, 1997
Creator: Blodgett, John E.; Parker, Larry & McCarthy, James E.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
"Mad Cow Disease" or Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Scientific and Regulatory Issues (open access)

"Mad Cow Disease" or Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Scientific and Regulatory Issues

This report discusses the regulatory issues regarding cattle disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and a rare, fatal human illness, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD).
Date: July 9, 1997
Creator: Johnson, Judith A. & Vogt, Donna U.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Wildlife Restoration Projects Fund (open access)

Wildlife Restoration Projects Fund

Since 1937, a cooperative program between the federal and state governments has existed for wildlife restoration. This program provides federal grants-in-aid to state agencies for conservation through land and water management for wild birds and mammals. While up to 8% of the collected revenues from excise taxes dedicated to the program may be retained by the federal government for administration, all remaining funds are apportioned to the states and territories for use either in wildlife restoration or hunter safety and education programs. Wildlife restoration programs receive all funds generated from the excise tax on firearms other than pistols and revolvers and all funds collected from shells and cartridges. Additionally, one-half of the excise taxes collected from pistols, revolvers, and archery equipment goes for wildlife restoration purposes. Hunter safety and education programs are funded from the remaining half of excise taxes collected on pistols, revolvers, and archery equipment. The states have been authorized by law to use hunter safety and education funds for wildlife restoration projects.
Date: May 2, 1997
Creator: Talley, Louis Alan
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Non-Indigenous Species: Government Response to the Brown Tree Snake and Issues for Congress (open access)

Non-Indigenous Species: Government Response to the Brown Tree Snake and Issues for Congress

Species found abundantly outside of their normal range can represent an ecological and economic hazard as great or greater than the most far-reaching efforts to protect an endangered species.
Date: May 2, 1997
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
African Elephant Issues: CITES and CAMPFIRE (open access)

African Elephant Issues: CITES and CAMPFIRE

The conservation of African elephants has been controversial recently on two fronts: the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES, to which the United States is a party), and a Zimbabwean program for sustainable development called CAMPFIRE, which is partially funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Two controversies have sprung up recently about the African elephant. One is the changing status of this species under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), of which the United States is a signatory. The other is over a program in Zimbabwe called "CAMPFIRE." The partial funding of this program by the U.S. Agency for International Development has been criticized by animal welfare groups and some conservation groups, though it has been supported by other conservation groups as well as many hunting organizations.
Date: August 5, 1997
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne & Fletcher, Susan R.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Dolphin Protection and Tuna Seining (open access)

Dolphin Protection and Tuna Seining

From its inception in 1972, one of the goals of the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) was to reduce the incidental mortality of dolphins in the ETP tuna fishery. Regulations promulgated under MMPA authority set standards for tuna seining and motivated technological improvements that reduced dolphin mortalities in this fishery -- by 1977, annual dolphin mortality by U.S. tuna seiners had declined to about 25,450 animals. Despite the extensive mortalities, no ETP dolphin population has been listed as endangered or threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. However, two ETP dolphin stocks were listed as depleted under the MMPA.
Date: August 29, 1997
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
A Brief Introduction to the Federal Budget Process (open access)

A Brief Introduction to the Federal Budget Process

This report provides a brief introduction to the federal budget process. Key budget concepts and terminology are defined and explained. The separate procedures that make up the federal budget process are identified and their salient features described. While a complete understanding of federal budgeting probably can be obtained only after much observation and study of the process in operation, broad exposure to its rudiments is a useful first step. Various resources “for additional reading” are identified at the end of this report, which the reader may find helpful in exploring the subject in greater depth.
Date: October 20, 1997
Creator: Keith, Robert
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
A Balanced Budget Constitutional Amendment: Background and Congressional Options (open access)

A Balanced Budget Constitutional Amendment: Background and Congressional Options

One of the most persistent political issues facing Congress in recent years is whether to require that the budget of the United States be in balance. Although a balanced federal budget has long been held as a political ideal, the accumulation of large deficits in recent years has heightened concern that some action to require a balance between revenues and expenditures may be necessary. The debate over a balanced budget measure actually consists of several interrelated debates, which this report addresses.
Date: March 20, 1997
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Budget Reconciliation in the 105th Congress: Achieving a Balanced Budget by 2002 (open access)

Budget Reconciliation in the 105th Congress: Achieving a Balanced Budget by 2002

Achievement of a balanced federal budget by 2002 was a high priority for the 105th Congress and the President. After months of negotiations and debate, starting in February 1997 and ending in July 1997, congressional leaders and the White House forged a consensus on legislation to accomplish this goal. The legislation, signed into law by President Clinton on August 5, 1997, sets “caps” on discretionary spending, constrains entitlement programs, and on balance reduces federal taxes.
Date: September 11, 1997
Creator: Koitz, David Stuart & Nuschler, Dawn
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices (open access)

Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices

This report provides information on the history of continuing resolutions; the nature, scope, and duration of CRs during the last 30 years; the various types of CRs that have been enacted; and an ove