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Aerodynamic Re-Entry Analysis. Task 2. Thermoelectric Generator Summary Report (open access)

Aerodynamic Re-Entry Analysis. Task 2. Thermoelectric Generator Summary Report

An analytical trajectory and aerothermodynamic analysis of a satellite containing a Task 2 thermoelectric generator was completed. A 300-statute mile circular polar orbit was used for this analysis and the launch was assumed to be from Vandenberg Air Force Base. Results of this study show that upon natural decay from a successful mission, the radio-cerium fuel will burn up in space at high altitude, thus only a very minor amount of radio cerium will be released to the stratosphere. A complete analyses of the fate of the radio-cerium fuel following various aborted launching attempts also was carried out. Charts summarizing the various assumed failures and locations of the fuel following failure are shown. A technical discussion of the methods used in performing the analysis is included in the report. (auth)
Date: December 27, 1960
Creator: Oehrli, R.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Radioactive Waste Disposal System Periodic Radiation Monitoring Survey. Core I, Seed 1. Test Results (T-612075). Section 2 (open access)

Radioactive Waste Disposal System Periodic Radiation Monitoring Survey. Core I, Seed 1. Test Results (T-612075). Section 2

Radiation levels were determined at all permanently installed monitored points in the disposal area. Radiation levels were found to be generally higher than those measured during the previous test but within Health Physics limitations. (J.R.D.)
Date: October 1, 1960
Creator: unknown
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Gaseous Diffusion at Moderate Flow Rates in Circular Conduits (open access)

Gaseous Diffusion at Moderate Flow Rates in Circular Conduits

None
Date: July 1, 1960
Creator: Roley, G. & Fahien, R. W.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Nuclear Battery-Thermocouple Type Summary Report (open access)

Nuclear Battery-Thermocouple Type Summary Report

The potential usefulness of approximately 1300 radioactive isotopes as a heat source for the thermoelectric generator was investigated. Only 47 were found to have the proper characteristics of high specific activity and usable haif-life combined with an easily absorbable radiation. These isotopes are discussed showing possible sources of supply, the hazards involved, and the expected performance. Three large Po/sup 210/ heat sources were designed and constructed (for battery use), including one for the SNAP III generator. One small Tl/sup 204/ test heat source was made by irradiation. Eight thermoelectric generators were developed and two of these were used as thermoelectric batteries. Theoretical equations for non-semiconductor thermoelectric materials and experimental measurements to verify the Thompson and Peltier effects are given. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1960
Creator: Blanke, B. C.; Birden, J. H.; Jordan, K. C. & Murphy, E. L.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Mass Transfer Coefficients and Interfacial Area in a One Stage Pulse Column (open access)

Mass Transfer Coefficients and Interfacial Area in a One Stage Pulse Column

Over-all mass transfer coefficients were determined independently of the interfacial area by considering the operation of the pulse column to be a stage- wise process. The calculated coefficients describe only the operation of the pulse column for the free rise of organic droplets through a stage, since in the downstroke the aqueous phase passes through the organic phase in the form of rivulets preferentially wetting the plates. The driving force for transfer was based on the aqueous phase concentrations. The mass transfer coefficient was found to increase when the interfacial tension was reduced. Two factors appear to affect the mass transfer coefficient as the pulse frequency is changed and are: a) recycle or backmixing which tends to decrease the coefficient through a reduction of acetic acid in both phases and thereby increases the interfacial tension, and b) turbulence which enhances the coefficient by reducing the continuous film resistance. The first is important at or near the lower flooding limit, but the latter is the controlling factor at higher frequencies. (D.L.C.)
Date: November 1, 1960
Creator: Konopik, A. E. & Burkhart, L.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Determination of Aerodynamic Drag Parameters of Small Irregular Objects by Means of Drop Tests (open access)

Determination of Aerodynamic Drag Parameters of Small Irregular Objects by Means of Drop Tests

Drag coefficients were determined for various irregular objects such as glass fragments, stones, steel fragments, and spheres by means of drop tests for use in a mathematical model to correlate nuclear explosion blast experiments. Drop tests were also made on small laboratory animals and extrapolated to estimate the drag properties of man. A method was developed to estimate the average drag properties of man from his total surface area. (D.L.C.)
Date: June 1, 1960
Creator: Fletcher, E. R.; Albright, R. W.; Goldizen, V. C. & Bowen, I. G.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Spectrophotometric studies of solutions at elevated temperatures and pressures: status and program for FY1961 and part of FY 1962 (open access)

Spectrophotometric studies of solutions at elevated temperatures and pressures: status and program for FY1961 and part of FY 1962

A program was initiated on the spectrophotometric study of aqueous solution chemistry. The goal is operation at temperatures up to at least 330 deg C and at pressures up to 200 atm, and to near the critical point if this appears to be feasible. A spectrometer capable of operation under these extreme conditions is being designed. (W.L.H.)
Date: July 19, 1960
Creator: Biggers, R. E. & Chilton, J. M.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
DETERMINATION OF COEFFICIENTS OF REACTIVITY 5532.3 EFPH. CORE I, SEED 1. Test Results (T-550132). Section 1 (open access)

DETERMINATION OF COEFFICIENTS OF REACTIVITY 5532.3 EFPH. CORE I, SEED 1. Test Results (T-550132). Section 1

None
Date: October 17, 1960
Creator: unknown
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Methods and Techniques of Fallout Studies Using a Particulate Simulant (open access)

Methods and Techniques of Fallout Studies Using a Particulate Simulant

The fallout hazard and protection factors in current use for large groups of buildings, i.e., urban residential areas, business districts, industrial complexes, government centers, Atomic Energy Commission facilities, and academic and medical institutions, are largely unsubstantiated by experimental evidence. These data are important for personnel protection on a national basis in the event of war and on a local basis in the event of certain types of nuclear accidents. The need for such information is discussed and methods for obtaining it are suggested. The methods suggested should provide a cross check of the data obtained on isolated structures under actual fallout conditions with the data from studies that made use of methods such as distributed point sources and a moving single-point source (as used in the Mobile Radiological Measurement Unit, Civil Effects Test Operations) to simulate actual fallout fields and with data from other studies in which predicted values of fallout protection were calculated from strictiy theoretical considerations. (auth)
Date: August 1, 1960
Creator: Lee, W. & Borella, H.M.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Zero Field Magnetic Properties of Gadolinium Terbium, and Samarium (open access)

Zero Field Magnetic Properties of Gadolinium Terbium, and Samarium

The mutual inductance or apparent susceptibility due to the presence of the sample in a coaxial inductance coil was observed for Gd, Tb, and Sm in fields of a few gauss over the respective temperature ranges of 78 to 310 deg K, 78 to 235 deg K, and 4.2 to 150 deg K. A paramagnetic Curie point of 284.2 deg K was found for Gd. For Tb, a transition was found which occurred to within 1 deg of the predicted temperature of 220 deg K, and a second peak occurred at 229.4 deg K which is within 2 deg of the heat capacity peak. The 220 deg K peak exhibited hysteresis and time dependence. Extrapolation of Tb data to DELTA M = 0 yielded a Curie point of 235.6 deg K. No hysteresis was observed in the 14.8 deg K peak for Sm. (D.L.C.)
Date: November 1, 1960
Creator: Hill, E. D. & Spedding, F. H.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Thermal Expansion and Phase Inversion of Rare-Earth Oxides (open access)

Thermal Expansion and Phase Inversion of Rare-Earth Oxides

Thermal expansion and phase inversion measurements are reported on oxides of Sc, Y, La, and 12 lanthanide series elements up to 1350 deg C. (J.R.D.)
Date: October 1, 1960
Creator: Stecura, S. & Campbell, W.J.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Research and Development of Metal Hydrides. Summary Report for October 1, 1958-September 30, 1960 (open access)

Research and Development of Metal Hydrides. Summary Report for October 1, 1958-September 30, 1960

A detailed study of the fundamental relations in the zirconium -- hydrogen system was made in order to clarify the many points of dispute and to evolve a complete picture describing all phases of this system. An engineering evaluation was made of means for utillzing the various high cross-section metal hydrides in shielding or control applications. These materials would combine the processes of thermalization and absorption. Consequently, they are of considerable interest for use in shielding or controlling epithermal reactors. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1960
Creator: Beck, R. L.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
RADIOLOGICAL HAZARDS FROM RUPTURE OF THE SECONDARY COOLANT SYSTEM OF THE 10 Mw ESCR (open access)

RADIOLOGICAL HAZARDS FROM RUPTURE OF THE SECONDARY COOLANT SYSTEM OF THE 10 Mw ESCR

The hazards study was made to determine the radiation level from the secondary sodium lines of the l0-Mw ESCR, and to evaluate the corresponding radioactive concentration in the secondary loop and the maximum permissible effective activation flux in the intermediate heat exchanger. The results are presented graphicallyn the radiation level from the coolant lines during normal operation as a function of line diameter and Na/sup 4/ concentration; the effective thermal neutron activation flux level in the intermediate heat exchanger as a function of the Na/sup 4/ concentration in the secondary loop and the ratio of the time spent in the flux field to the time spent in making one cycle; average Na concentration in the reactor room atmosphere for operative and inoperative ventilation systems, assuming that all the sodium in the secondary system is released to the room and burns; and the downwind concentration of Na/ sup 24/ resulting from the release of all the secondary sodium on an open pad area exterior to the reactor building. An analysis of the results shows that in the event of an accident the toxicological hazards are more severe than the radiological hazards. Recommendations are given for minimizing the toxological hazards. (B.O.G.)
Date: January 19, 1960
Creator: Piccot, A.R.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Equilibrium of the System Lanthanum Nitrate-Praseodymium Nitrate-Nitric Acid-Water-Tributyl Phosphate (open access)

Equilibrium of the System Lanthanum Nitrate-Praseodymium Nitrate-Nitric Acid-Water-Tributyl Phosphate

A study of the extraction characteristics of the three systems lanthanum nitrate--nitric acid--water--tributyl phosphate, praseodymium nitrate--nitric acid--water--tributyl phosphate, and lanthanum nitrate--praseodymium nitrate nitric acid -water--tributyl phosphate was conducted. The separation factors between praseodymium and lanthanum for the system lanthanum nitrate--praseodymium nitrate-nitric acid--water--tributyl phosphate were shown to be a function of the total nitrate concentration of an equilibrium phase and practically independent of solute composition. A method of predicting the concentrations of lanthanum nitrate, praseodymium nitrate, and nitric acid in an equilibrium phase of the system lanthanum nitrate--praseodymium nitrate--nitric acid--water--tributyl phosphate was presented. A comparison of the extraction characteristics of the system rare-earth nitrate--nitric acid--water--tributyl phosphate for the nitrates of lanthanum, praseodymium, neodymium, and samarium was made. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1960
Creator: Sharp, B. M. & Smutz, M.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Research and Development Reports for Sodium to Sodium Intermediate Heat Exchanger and Sodium to Water Steam Generator (open access)

Research and Development Reports for Sodium to Sodium Intermediate Heat Exchanger and Sodium to Water Steam Generator

Results are presented of research and development work performed in conjunction with the 70-Mw design of a sodium-to- sodium intermediate heat exchanger and a sodium-to-water steam generator. Kanigen plating was substituted for Inconel overlays. A program to evaluate this plating was undertaken. Elimination of tube end ferrules, mechanical behavior of sine wave tubes, tube-to- tube sheet welded connections, metallurgical examination of bimetallic tubes, transition weld test, bayonet tube test, and bayonet tube weld cap test are discussed. (M.C.G.)
Date: October 30, 1960
Creator: unknown
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
REACTOR THEORY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR ABWR. Annual Progress Report, October 1, 1959-September 30, 1960 (open access)

REACTOR THEORY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR ABWR. Annual Progress Report, October 1, 1959-September 30, 1960

None
Date: January 1, 1960
Creator: Newburg, E A & Noderer, L C
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
SM-1A PROJECT--TECHNICAL MANUAL: CHEMISTRY (open access)

SM-1A PROJECT--TECHNICAL MANUAL: CHEMISTRY

A manual is given of the equipment and procedures used in the Army Reactor (SM-1A) to control the water purity and makeup. In addition to a description of the primary purification control system, a discussion is presented of the water chemistry control procedures for the auxiliary systems (e.g., the spent-fuel pit, the shield tank, and the waste disposal system). (T.F.H.)
Date: September 29, 1960
Creator: Chupak, J.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Civilian Power Reactor Program. Part II. Economic Potential and Development Program. Heavy Water-Moderated Power Reactor (open access)

Civilian Power Reactor Program. Part II. Economic Potential and Development Program. Heavy Water-Moderated Power Reactor

The reactor design which forms the base for the current economic status of D/sub 2/O-moderated reactors was estimated from developments in several reactor programs. However, since a heavy water-moderated reactor was not operated on natural U fuel at power reactor conditions, considerable improvement from this current status can be foreseen. A summary of improvements is presented concerning the concept which would result solely from operation of succeeding generation plants without a parallel development program, and improvements which would result from the successful completion of the development program as presented. One plant size was used in the evaluation of plant potential, with a 300 Mw/sub e/ nominal rating. The boiling D/sub 2/O-cooled, pressure tube direct cycle plant design was used. The current development program is outlined; this work includes several items leading to the long-range development of the concept. (auth)
Date: August 19, 1960
Creator: Hutton, J. H.; Davis, S. A.; Graves, C. C. & Duffy, J. G.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Civilian Power Reactor Program. Part III. Status Report on Large (100 and 300 MWe) Heavy Water-Moderated Power Reactors--as of 1960 (open access)

Civilian Power Reactor Program. Part III. Status Report on Large (100 and 300 MWe) Heavy Water-Moderated Power Reactors--as of 1960

An evaluation of 300- and 100-Mwe power plants was conducted using ground rules prescribed by the USAEC for this study. Costs corresponding to two average discharged fuel burnups are: 8.6 mills/kwh (8500 Mwd/ metric ton) and 8.8 mills/kwh (7500 Mwd/metric ton) for the 300-Mw plant. Costs for the 100 Mw plant are 14.7 mills/kwh for an average discharged fuel burnup of 6010 Mwd/metric ton. Estimates of future potential indicate that the 300 Mw/sub 3/ (8500 Mwd/metric ton) plant could produce power for 7.3 mills/kwh in a second generation, full scale plant of the same type. A further reduction to 6.4 mills/kwh should be possible as the result of the recommended ten-year development program. The current development program is adequate for providing the data needed to design and construct a prototype reactor. However, there is no natural U-fueled prototype and no prototype of the chosen reference design scheduled in the U.S. Current technology is sufficiently developed to initiate the design and construction of a pressure tube, boiling D/sub 2/Ocooled, natural UO/sub 2/- fueled reactor prototype plant in the immediate future. This plant would demonstrate the main features of a full scale plant and, in addition. would provide design data which could …
Date: August 19, 1960
Creator: Hutton, J. H.; Davis, S. A.; Graves, C. C. & Duffy, J. G.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
SNAP II POWER CONVERSION SYSTEM TOPICAL REPORT NO. 11, ORBITAL FORCE FIELD BOILING AND CONDENSING EXPERIMENT (open access)

SNAP II POWER CONVERSION SYSTEM TOPICAL REPORT NO. 11, ORBITAL FORCE FIELD BOILING AND CONDENSING EXPERIMENT

The characteristics of Rankine space power plants in the zero gravity aspect of the environment of space were lnvestigated. The expected effects of Rankine space power plants are described. Discussions of experimental techniques for studying these phenomena show that this information can be obtained rapidly and economically. Recommendations for a program to supplement SNAP II and slmllar Ranklne space power development efforts in this vital area are made, and consist of: the development and testing of a small system that adequately simulates a complete Ranklne system, first in zero grayity and finally, in the complete orbltal environment; followed by, the development and similar testing of a complete Rankine system using SNAP ll hardware. (auth)
Date: January 15, 1960
Creator: Grevstad, P.E.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
REACTOR FUEL WASTE DISPOSAL PROJECT-PERMEABILITY OF ROCK SALT AND CREEP OF UNDERGROUND SALT CAVITIES. Final Report (open access)

REACTOR FUEL WASTE DISPOSAL PROJECT-PERMEABILITY OF ROCK SALT AND CREEP OF UNDERGROUND SALT CAVITIES. Final Report

A study was made of two problems of salt-cavity storage, namely, seepage of wastes out of formations and closure of cavities due to plastic flow of salt. The results indicate that both problems are negligible; bedded salt is more impermeable than dome salt. Kerosene was found to be nonreactive with dome salt whereas brine solutions showed some interaction. It is concluded that storage of radioactive wastes in salt cavities is feasible. (D.L.C.)
Date: December 30, 1960
Creator: Reynolds, T.D. & Gloyna, E.F.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Periodic Intercalibration of Temperature Sensing Elements, Core I, Seed I. Test Results T-641306 (open access)

Periodic Intercalibration of Temperature Sensing Elements, Core I, Seed I. Test Results T-641306

BS>Intercalibration data for various temperature sensing elements in the reactor coolant system are obtained and compared with calculated source activity levels and observed channel levels. The readings of 20 of the 62 core thermocouples were either less than 400 deg F, which was off scale on the recorder, or were plus or minus 20 deg F from the calibrating resistance thermometer temperatures. The remainder of the readings were within plus or minus 3% of the temperatures of the calibrating thermometers which were used as a standard of comparison. The main coolant loop resistance thermometers all read within plus or minus 0.2% of the calibrating thermometers. The data from the nuclear source range instrumentation indicated a level ranging from less than 1.7 cps to 31 cps; Channel A indicating the highest. The recorded source activity levels were generally higher than the calculated source activity levels as they should be. There appeared to be no correlation between coolant temperature and source log level source range indications. (N.W.R.)
Date: October 24, 1960
Creator: unknown
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Periodic Waste Disposal System Material Balance Test. Core I, Seed 1. Test Results (T-641317). Section 3 (open access)

Periodic Waste Disposal System Material Balance Test. Core I, Seed 1. Test Results (T-641317). Section 3

An investigation was conducted to determine the adequacy of storage capacity and operating procedures of the waste disposal system during reactor cooldown for refueling. It was found that the waste storage capacity and the operating procedures were adequate. (J.R.D.)
Date: October 17, 1960
Creator: unknown
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
A METHOD OF EFFECTIVELY WIDENING THE BRAGG PEAK IN DEPTH IN THE PATH OF CHARGED HEAVY PARTICLES IN TISSUE (open access)

A METHOD OF EFFECTIVELY WIDENING THE BRAGG PEAK IN DEPTH IN THE PATH OF CHARGED HEAVY PARTICLES IN TISSUE

A device is described for the filtration of charged energetic heavy particles resulting in the production of adjacent or separated Bragg peaks within the range of the particles in tissue. Two or more layers of intense ionization at different depths separated by layers of less ionlzation in tissue can be produced. A cylinder of uniform ionization which cuts off sharply in depth in tissue can also be produced. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1960
Creator: Jansen, C.R.; Baker, C.; Calvo, W.; Rai, K.R. & Lippincott, S.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library