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4 kW Test of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Stacks with Advanced Electrode-Supported Cells (open access)

4 kW Test of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Stacks with Advanced Electrode-Supported Cells

A new test stand has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for multi-kW testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. This test stand will initially be operated at the 4 KW scale. The 4 kW tests will include two 60-cell stacks operating in parallel in a single hot zone. The stacks are internally manifolded with an inverted-U flow pattern and an active area of 100 cm2 per cell. Process gases to and from the two stacks are distributed from common inlet/outlet tubing using a custom base manifold unit that also serves as the bottom current collector plate. The solid oxide cells incorporate a negative-electrode-supported multi-layer design with nickel-zirconia cermet negative electrodes, thin-film yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolytes, and multi-layer lanthanum ferrite-based positive electrodes. Treated metallic interconnects with integral flow channels separate the cells and electrode gases. Sealing is accomplished with compliant mica-glass seals. A spring-loaded test fixture is used for mechanical stack compression. Due to the power level and the large number of cells in the hot zone, process gas flow rates are high and heat recuperation is required to preheat the cold inlet gases upstream of the furnace. Heat recuperation is achieved by means of two inconel tube-in-tube counter-flow heat exchangers. …
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: O'Brien, J. E.; Zhang, X.; Housley, G. K.; Moore-McAteer, L. & Tao, G.
Object Type: Article
System: The UNT Digital Library
2011 Idaho National Laboratory Water Use Report and Comprehensive Well Inventory (Revision 20) (open access)

2011 Idaho National Laboratory Water Use Report and Comprehensive Well Inventory (Revision 20)

This 2011 Idaho National Laboratory Water Use Report and Comprehensive Well Inventory (Revision 20) provides water use information (monthly annual average and total annual volume) for production and potable water wells at the Idaho National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2011. It also provides detailed information for new, modified, and abandoned (decommissioned) wells and holes. One new well was drilled and completed and one well was modified in Calendar Year 2011. A total of 14 wells and boreholes were reported as decommissioned. Detailed construction information for the new and modified wells is provided. Details are provided for the wells and boreholes that have been decommissioned, and if available, construction diagrams. Location maps are included, provided survey information was available. This report is being submitted in accordance with the Water Rights Agreement between the State of Idaho and the United States, for the United States Department of Energy (dated 1990) and the subsequent Partial Decree for Water Right 34-10901 issued June 20, 2003.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Bowser, Renee
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
2012 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) Guide: For Texas Public School Districts and Campuses (open access)

2012 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) Guide: For Texas Public School Districts and Campuses

Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) analyzing the test results, graduation rates, and other evaluation measures for performance of school districts in the state of Texas.
Date: June 2012
Creator: Texas Education Agency. Division of Performance Reporting. Department of Assessment and Accountability.
Object Type: Report
System: The Portal to Texas History

[Action figure at the Gainesville Circus]

Photograph of an action figure at the Gainesville Community Circus. The girl wearing a yellow, shimmery co-ord set is seen standing on a ball. The Gainesville Circus Center is a 501(c)3 non-profit social circus and a licensed child care facility. Their mission is to cultivate an inclusive community through the practice of social circus.
Date: June 2012
Creator: Mallory, Randy
Object Type: Photograph
System: The UNT Digital Library
Adopt-A-Prairie Chicken Newsletter, Summer 2012 (open access)

Adopt-A-Prairie Chicken Newsletter, Summer 2012

Newsletter regarding population control and conservation efforts of the Attwater's Prairie Chicken.
Date: June 2012
Creator: Texas. Parks and Wildlife Department.
Object Type: Journal/Magazine/Newsletter
System: The Portal to Texas History
Adult and Juvenile Correctional Population Projection, Fiscal Years 2012-2017 (open access)

Adult and Juvenile Correctional Population Projection, Fiscal Years 2012-2017

"This report is provided to the Texas Juvenile Justice Department and the Texas Department of Criminal Justice so they may incorporate the relevant information into their Legislative Appropriations Requests for the 2014-15 biennium" (June 2012).
Date: June 2012
Creator: Texas. Legislative Budget Board.
Object Type: Report
System: The Portal to Texas History
AN ADVANCED CALIBRATION PROCEDURE FOR COMPLEX IMPEDANCE SPECTRUM MEASUREMENTS OF ADVANCED ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES (open access)

AN ADVANCED CALIBRATION PROCEDURE FOR COMPLEX IMPEDANCE SPECTRUM MEASUREMENTS OF ADVANCED ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES

With the increasing demand for electric and hybrid electric vehicles and the explosion in popularity of mobile and portable electronic devices such as laptops, cell phones, e-readers, tablet computers and the like, reliance on portable energy storage devices such as batteries has likewise increased. The concern for the availability of critical systems in turn drives the availability of battery systems and thus the need for accurate battery health monitoring has become paramount. Over the past decade the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Montana Tech of the University of Montana (Tech), and Qualtech Systems, Inc. (QSI) have been developing the Smart Battery Status Monitor (SBSM), an integrated battery management system designed to monitor battery health, performance and degradation and use this knowledge for effective battery management and increased battery life. Key to the success of the SBSM is an in-situ impedance measurement system called the Impedance Measurement Box (IMB). One of the challenges encountered has been development of an accurate, simple, robust calibration process. This paper discusses the successful realization of this process.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Morrison, William H.; Christophersen, Jon P.; Bald, Patrick & Morrison, John L.
Object Type: Article
System: The UNT Digital Library
Advanced Control and Protection system Design Methods for Modular HTGRs (open access)

Advanced Control and Protection system Design Methods for Modular HTGRs

The project supported the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in identifying and evaluating the regulatory implications concerning the control and protection systems proposed for use in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The NGNP, using modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology, is to provide commercial industries with electricity and high-temperature process heat for industrial processes such as hydrogen production. Process heat temperatures range from 700 to 950 C, and for the upper range of these operation temperatures, the modular HTGR is sometimes referred to as the Very High Temperature Reactor or VHTR. Initial NGNP designs are for operation in the lower temperature range. The defining safety characteristic of the modular HTGR is that its primary defense against serious accidents is to be achieved through its inherent properties of the fuel and core. Because of its strong negative temperature coefficient of reactivity and the capability of the fuel to withstand high temperatures, fast-acting active safety systems or prompt operator actions should not be required to prevent significant fuel failure and fission product release. The plant is designed such that its inherent features should provide adequate protection despite operational errors or equipment failure. Figure 1 shows an example modular HTGR …
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Ball, Sydney J.; Wilson, Thomas L., Jr. & Wood, Richard Thomas
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Advances in High Throughput Screening of Biomass Recalcitrance (Poster) (open access)

Advances in High Throughput Screening of Biomass Recalcitrance (Poster)

This was a poster displayed at the Symposium. Advances on previous high throughput screening of biomass recalcitrance methods have resulted in improved conversion and replicate precision. Changes in plate reactor metallurgy, improved preparation of control biomass, species-specific pretreatment conditions, and enzymatic hydrolysis parameters have reduced overall coefficients of variation to an average of 6% for sample replicates. These method changes have improved plate-to-plate variation of control biomass recalcitrance and improved confidence in sugar release differences between samples. With smaller errors plant researchers can have a higher degree of assurance more low recalcitrance candidates can be identified. Significant changes in plate reactor, control biomass preparation, pretreatment conditions and enzyme have significantly reduced sample and control replicate variability. Reactor plate metallurgy significantly impacts sugar release aluminum leaching into reaction during pretreatment degrades sugars and inhibits enzyme activity. Removal of starch and extractives significantly decreases control biomass variability. New enzyme formulations give more consistent and higher conversion levels, however required re-optimization for switchgrass. Pretreatment time and temperature (severity) should be adjusted to specific biomass types i.e. woody vs. herbaceous. Desalting of enzyme preps to remove low molecular weight stabilizers and improved conversion levels likely due to water activity impacts on enzyme structure and …
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Turner, G. B.; Decker, S. R.; Tucker, M. P.; Law, C.; Doeppke, C.; Sykes, R. W. et al.
Object Type: Article
System: The UNT Digital Library
Aerosol tests conducted at Aberdeen Proving Grounds MD. (open access)

Aerosol tests conducted at Aberdeen Proving Grounds MD.

Test data are reported that demonstrate the deposition from a spray dispersion system (Illinois Tool Works inductively charging rotary atomization nozzle) for application of decontamination solution to various surfaces in the passenger cabin of a Boeing 737 aircraft. The decontamination solution (EnviroTru) was tagged with a known concentration of fluorescein permitting determination of both airborne decontaminant concentration and surface deposited decontaminant solution so that the effective deposition rates and surface coverage could be determined and correlated with the amount of material sprayed. Six aerosol dispersion tests were conducted. In each test, aluminum foil deposition coupons were set out throughout the passenger area and the aerosol was dispersed. The aerosol concentration was measured with filter samplers as well as with optical techniques Average aerosol deposition ranged from 3 to 15 grams of decontamination solution per square meter. Some disagreement was observed between various instruments utilizing different measurement principles. These results demonstrate a potentially effective method to disperse decontaminant to interior surfaces of a passenger aircraft.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Brockmann, John E.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Servantes, Brandon Lee & Hankins, Matthew Granholm
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
The Age, Volume 34, Number 6, June 2012 (open access)

The Age, Volume 34, Number 6, June 2012

Monthly publication containing information related to Chambers County, Texas, including current events of the Chambers County Historical Commission, the Wallisville Heritage Park, and the Chambers County historical and genealogical societies; reprinted newspaper articles about county events and citizens; and historical news and records.
Date: June 2012
Creator: Wallisville Heritage Park (Organization)
Object Type: Journal/Magazine/Newsletter
System: The Portal to Texas History
AGR-1 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report (open access)

AGR-1 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report

This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-1 irradiation experiment. AGR-1 is the first of eight planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. The objectives of the AGR-1 experiment are: 1. To gain experience with multi-capsule test train design, fabrication, and operation with the intent to reduce the probability of capsule or test train failure in subsequent irradiation tests. 2. To irradiate fuel produced in conjunction with the AGR fuel process development effort. 3. To provide data that will support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-1 experiment was irradiated in the B-10 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for a total duration of 620 effective full power days of irradiation. Irradiation began on December 24, 2006 and ended on November 6, 2009 spanning 13 ATR cycles and approximately three calendar years. The test contained six independently controlled and monitored capsules. Each capsule contained …
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Collin, Blaise P.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
AGR-2 Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycles 149B, 150A, 150B, 151A, and 151B (open access)

AGR-2 Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycles 149B, 150A, 150B, 151A, and 151B

This report provides the data qualification status of AGR-2 fuel irradiation experimental data from Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) cycles 149B, 150A, 150B, 151A, and 151B), as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). The AGR-2 data streams addressed include thermocouple temperatures, sweep gas data (flow rate, pressure, and moisture content), and fission product monitoring system (FPMS) data for each of the six capsules in the experiment. A total of 3,307,500 5-minute thermocouple and sweep gas data records were received and processed by NDMAS for this period. There are no AGR-2 data for cycle 150A because the experiment was removed from the reactor. Of these data, 82.2% were determined to be Qualified based on NDMAS accuracy testing and data validity assessment. There were 450,557 Failed temperature records due to thermocouple failures, and 138,528 Failed gas flow records due to gas flow cross-talk and leakage problems that occurred in the capsules after cycle 150A. For FPMS data, NDMAS received and processed preliminary release rate and release-to-birth rate ratio (R/B) data for the first three reactor cycles (cycles 149B, 150B, and 151B). This data consists of 45,983 release rate records and 45,235 R/B records for the 12 radionuclides reported. The …
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Abbott, Michael L. & Pham, Binh T.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Algorithm for Building a Spectrum for NREL's One-Sun Multi-Source Simulator: Preprint (open access)

Algorithm for Building a Spectrum for NREL's One-Sun Multi-Source Simulator: Preprint

Historically, the tools used at NREL to compensate for the difference between a reference spectrum and a simulator spectrum have been well-matched reference cells and the application of a calculated spectral mismatch correction factor, M. This paper describes the algorithm for adjusting the spectrum of a 9-channel fiber-optic-based solar simulator with a uniform beam size of 9 cm square at 1-sun. The combination of this algorithm and the One-Sun Multi-Source Simulator (OSMSS) hardware reduces NREL's current vs. voltage measurement time for a typical three-junction device from man-days to man-minutes. These time savings may be significantly greater for devices with more junctions.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Moriarty, T.; Emery, K. & Jablonski, J.
Object Type: Article
System: The UNT Digital Library
Alternative Approaches to Calculate Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market With Wind and Solar Energy: Preprint (open access)

Alternative Approaches to Calculate Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market With Wind and Solar Energy: Preprint

The anticipated increase in variable generation in the Western Interconnection over the next several years has raised concerns about how to maintain system balance, especially in smaller Balancing Authority Areas (BAAs). Given renewable portfolio standards in the West, it is possible that more than 50 gigawatts of wind capacity will be installed by 2020. Significant quantities of solar generation are likely to be added as well. The consequent increase in variability and uncertainty that must be managed by the conventional generation fleet and responsive loads has resulted in a proposal for an Energy Imbalance Market (EIM). This paper extends prior work to estimate the reserve requirements for regulation, spinning, and non-spinning reserves with and without the EIM. We also discuss alternative approaches to allocating reserve requirements and show that some apparently attractive allocation methods have undesired consequences.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Kirby, B.; King, J. & Milligan, M.
Object Type: Article
System: The UNT Digital Library
The Altus Times (Altus, Okla.), Vol. 113, No. 1, Ed. 1 Friday, June 1, 2012 (open access)

The Altus Times (Altus, Okla.), Vol. 113, No. 1, Ed. 1 Friday, June 1, 2012

Daily newspaper from Altus, Oklahoma that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Bush, Michael
Object Type: Newspaper
System: The Gateway to Oklahoma History
Analysis of Cycling Costs in Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (open access)

Analysis of Cycling Costs in Western Wind and Solar Integration Study

The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) examined the impact of up to 30% penetration of variable renewable generation on the Western Electricity Coordinating Council system. Although start-up costs and higher operating costs because of part-load operation of thermal generators were included in the analysis, further investigation of additional costs associated with thermal unit cycling was deemed worthwhile. These additional cycling costs can be attributed to increases in capital as well as operations and maintenance costs because of wear and tear associated with increased unit cycling. This analysis examines the additional cycling costs of the thermal fleet by leveraging the results of WWSIS Phase 1 study.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Jordan, G. & Venkataraman, S.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Analysis of Solar Cell Quality Using Voltage Metrics: Preprint (open access)

Analysis of Solar Cell Quality Using Voltage Metrics: Preprint

The highest efficiency solar cells provide both excellent voltage and current. Of these, the open-circuit voltage (Voc) is more frequently viewed as an indicator of the material quality. However, since the Voc also depends on the band gap of the material, the difference between the band gap and the Voc is a better metric for comparing material quality of unlike materials. To take this one step further, since Voc also depends on the shape of the absorption edge, we propose to use the ultimate metric: the difference between the measured Voc and the Voc calculated from the external quantum efficiency using a detailed balance approach. This metric is less sensitive to changes in cell design and definition of band gap. The paper defines how to implement this metric and demonstrates how it can be useful in tracking improvements in Voc, especially as Voc approaches its theoretical maximum.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Toberer, E. S.; Tamboli, A. C.; Steiner, M. & Kurtz, S.
Object Type: Article
System: The UNT Digital Library
Analysis of the Reactor Physics of Low-Enrichment Fuel for the INL Advanced Test Reactor in support of RERTR (open access)

Analysis of the Reactor Physics of Low-Enrichment Fuel for the INL Advanced Test Reactor in support of RERTR

Analysis of the performance of the ATR with a LEU fuel design shows promise in terms of a core design that will yield the same neutron sources in target locations. A proposed integral cladding burnable absorber design appears to meet power profile requirements that will satisfy power distributions for safety limits. Performance of this fuel design is ongoing; the current work is the initial evaluation of the core performance of this fuel design with increasing burnup. Results show that LEU fuel may have a longer lifetime that HEU fuel however, such limits may be set by mechanical performance of the fuel rather that available reactivity. Changes seen in the radial fuel power distribution with burnup in LEU fuel will require further study to ascertain the impact on neutron fluxes in target locations. Source terms for discharged fuel have also been studied. By its very nature, LEU fuel produces much more plutonium than is present in HEU fuel at discharge. However, the effect of the plutonium inventory appears to have little affect on radiotoxicity or decay heat in the fuel.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: DeHart, Mark; Skerjanc, William & Morrell, Sean
Object Type: Article
System: The UNT Digital Library

Analysis Results for ARRA Projects: Enabling Fuel Cell Market Transformation

This presentation discusses analysis results for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act early market fuel cell deployments and describes the objective of the project and its relevance to the Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program; NREL's analysis approach; technical accomplishments including publication of a fourth set of composite data products; and collaborations and future work.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C. & Saur, G.
Object Type: Presentation
System: The UNT Digital Library
Analyzing Vehicle Fuel Saving Opportunities through Intelligent Driver Feedback (open access)

Analyzing Vehicle Fuel Saving Opportunities through Intelligent Driver Feedback

Driving style changes, e.g., improving driver efficiency and motivating driver behavior changes, could deliver significant petroleum savings. This project examines eliminating stop-and-go driving and unnecessary idling, and also adjusting acceleration rates and cruising speeds to ideal levels to quantify fuel savings. Such extreme adjustments can result in dramatic fuel savings of over 30%, but would in reality only be achievable through automated control of vehicles and traffic flow. In real-world driving, efficient driving behaviors could reduce fuel use by 20% on aggressively driven cycles and by 5-10% on more moderately driven trips. A literature survey was conducted of driver behavior influences, and pertinent factors from on-road experiments with different driving styles were observed. This effort highlighted important driver influences such as surrounding vehicle behavior, anxiety over trying to get somewhere quickly, and the power/torque available from the vehicle. Existing feedback approaches often deliver efficiency information and instruction. Three recommendations for maximizing fuel savings from potential drive cycle improvement are: (1) leveraging applications with enhanced incentives, (2) using an approach that is easy and widely deployable to motivate drivers, and (3) utilizing connected vehicle and automation technologies to achieve large and widespread efficiency improvements.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Gonder, J.; Earleywine, M. & Sparks, W.
Object Type: Article
System: The UNT Digital Library
Angler Recognition Program (open access)

Angler Recognition Program

This packet has a breakdown of awards given based on fishes caught and also records for fish weight and length. An award application form as well as general rules for fish captured documentation and rules for all award categories are also included.
Date: June 2012
Creator: Texas. Parks and Wildlife Department.
Object Type: Pamphlet
System: The Portal to Texas History
Annual Adaptive Management Report for Compensatory Mitigation at Keyport Lagoon: Mitigation of Pier B Development at the Bremerton Naval Facilities - Compensatory Mitigation at Keyport Lagoon - Naval Underwater Warfare Center Division - Keyport, Washington (open access)

Annual Adaptive Management Report for Compensatory Mitigation at Keyport Lagoon: Mitigation of Pier B Development at the Bremerton Naval Facilities - Compensatory Mitigation at Keyport Lagoon - Naval Underwater Warfare Center Division - Keyport, Washington

Unites States Navy capital improvement projects are designed to modernize and improve mission capacity. Such capital improvement projects often result in unavoidable environmental impacts by increasing over-water structures, which results in a loss of subtidal habitat within industrial areas of Navy bases. In the Pacific Northwest, compensatory mitigation often targets alleviating impacts to Endangered Species Act-listed salmon species. The complexity of restoring large systems requires limited resources to target successful and more coordinated mitigation efforts to address habitat loss and improvements in water quality that will clearly contribute to an improvement at the site scale and can then be linked to a cumulative net ecosystem improvement.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Vavrinec, John; Borde, Amy B.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Thom, Ronald M.; Wright, Cynthia L. et al.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Annual Energy Outlook 2012: with Projections to 2035 (open access)

Annual Energy Outlook 2012: with Projections to 2035

The Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (AEO2010), prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), presents long-term projections of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2035, based on results from EIA's National Energy Modeling System (NEMS).
Date: June 2012
Creator: United States. Energy Information Administration.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library