The purpose and scope of this paper is to discuss the emergence of the individual in the eleventh and twelfth centuries in light of the societal changes occurring at the time, and to establish the fact that this beginning of individualism can be seen particularly in the arts of the time. The evidence presented gives rise to the supposition that the society of the eleventh and twelfth centuries can be defined as humanistic, given that humanism implies a concern with and a concentration upon life on earth as opposed to life in heaven.
Resource recovery is an attractive alternative to the waste disposal problem. The chief by-product of this process, refuse derived fuel (RDF) can be co-fired in traditional coal burning facilities. The cement industry is a potential user of RDF. This study, based on a test burn done at Texas Industries Inc. in Midlothian, Texas, demonstrated the technical, environmental, and economic feasibility of using RDF fuel in a cement kiln. Technically, the cement showed no deleterious effects when RDF was substituted for coal/natural gas at 20% by Btu content. Environmentally, acid rain gases were reduced. Economically, RDF was shown to be a cost effective fuel substitute if a resource recovery facility was erected on site.