Resource Type

43 Matching Results

Results open in a new window/tab.

Method for priming and DNA sequencing (open access)

Method for priming and DNA sequencing

A method is presented for improving the priming specificity of an oligonucleotide primer that is non-unique in a nucleic acid template which includes selecting a continuous stretch of several nucleotides in the template DNA where one of the four bases does not occur in the stretch. This also includes bringing the template DNA in contract with a non-unique primer partially or fully complimentary to the sequence immediately upstream of the selected sequence stretch. This results in polymerase-mediated differential extension of the primer in the presence of a subset of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates that does not contain the base complementary to the base absent in the selected sequence stretch. These reactions occur at a temperature sufficiently low for allowing the extension of the non-unique primer. The method causes polymerase-mediated extension reactions in the presence of all four natural deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates or modifications. At this high temperature discrimination occurs against priming sites of the non-unique primer where the differential extension has not made the primer sufficiently stable to prime. However, the primer extended at the selected stretch is sufficiently stable to prime.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Mugasimangalam, R. C. & Ulanovsky, L. E.
System: The UNT Digital Library
TRIAC/SCR proportional control circuit (open access)

TRIAC/SCR proportional control circuit

A power controller device which uses a voltage-to-frequency converter in conjunction with a zero crossing detector to linearly and proportionally control AC power being supplied to a load. The output of the voltage to frequency converter controls the reset input of a R-S flip flop, while an 0 crossing detector controls the set input. The output of the flip flop triggers a monostable multivibrator controlling the SCR or TRIAC firing circuit connected to the load. Logic gates prevent the direct triggering of the multivibrator in the rare instance where the reset and set inputs of the flip flop are in coincidence. The control circuit can be supplemented with a control loop, providing compensation for line voltage variations.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Hughes, Wallace J.
System: The UNT Digital Library
A method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction (open access)

A method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

The present invention relates to a method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction. In particular, the method includes extracting the organic species into a polymer-rich phase of an aqueous biphase system in which the process stream comprises the salt-rich phase, and, next, separating the polymer from the extracted organic species by contacting the loaded, polymer-rich phase with a water-immiscible organic phase. Alternatively, the polymer can be separated from the extracted organic species by raising the temperature of the loaded, polymer-rich phase above the cloud point, such that the polymer and the water-soluble organic species separate into two distinct aqueous phases. In either case, a substantially salt-free, concentrated aqueous solution containing the organic species is recovered.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Chaiko, David J. & Mego, William A.
System: The UNT Digital Library
A method and apparatus for sizing and separating warp yarns (open access)

A method and apparatus for sizing and separating warp yarns

A slashing process for preparing warp yarns for weaving operations includes the steps of sizing and/or desizing the yarns in an acoustic resonance box and separating the yarns with a leasing apparatus comprised of a set of acoustically agitated lease rods. The sizing step includes immersing the yarns in a size solution contained in an acoustic resonance box. Acoustic transducers are positioned against the exterior of the box for generating an acoustic pressure field within the size solution. Ultrasonic waves that result from the acoustic pressure field continuously agitate the size solution to effect greater mixing and more uniform application and penetration of the size onto the yarns. The sized yarns are then separated by passing the warp yarns over and under lease rods. Electroacoustic transducers generate acoustic waves along the longitudinal axis of the lease rods, creating a shearing motion on the surface of the rods for splitting the yarns.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Chien, Hual-Te; Raptis, Apostolos C. & Kupperman, David S.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Recovery of fissile materials from nuclear wastes (open access)

Recovery of fissile materials from nuclear wastes

A process is described for recovering fissile materials such as uranium, and plutonium, and rare earth elements, from complex waste feed material, and converting the remaining wastes into a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. The waste feed is mixed with a dissolution glass formed of lead oxide and boron oxide resulting in oxidation, dehalogenation, and dissolution of metal oxides. Carbon is added to remove lead oxide, and a boron oxide fusion melt is produced. The fusion melt is essentially devoid of organic materials and halogens, and is easily and rapidly dissolved in nitric acid. After dissolution, uranium, plutonium, and rare earth elements are separated from the acid and recovered by processes such as PUREX or ion exchange. The remaining acid waste stream is vitrified to produce a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. Potential waste feed materials include plutonium scrap and residue, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, organic material and other carbon-containing material.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Forsberg, Charles W.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Cross flow flotation column for coal and minerals beneficiation (open access)

Cross flow flotation column for coal and minerals beneficiation

An apparatus and process are disclosed for the separation of coal from pyritic impurities using a modified froth flotation system. The froth flotation column incorporates a helical track about the inner wall of the column in a region intermediate between the top and base of the column. A standard impeller located about the central axis of the column is used to generate a centrifugal force thereby increasing the separation efficiency of coal from the pyritic particles and hydrophilic tailings.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Lai, Ralph W. & Patton, Robert A.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Combined heat and mass transfer device for improving separation process (open access)

Combined heat and mass transfer device for improving separation process

A two-phase small channel heat exchange matrix for providing simultaneous heat transfer and mass transfer at a single, predetermined location within a separation column, whereby the thermodynamic efficiency of the separation process is significantly improved. The small channel heat exchange matrix is comprised of a series of channels having a hydraulic diameter no greater than 5.0 mm. The channels are connected to an inlet header for supplying a two-phase coolant to the channels and an outlet header for receiving the coolant horn the channels. In operation, the matrix provides the liquid-vapor contacting surfaces within a separation column, whereby liquid descends along the exterior surfaces of the cooling channels and vapor ascends between adjacent channels within the matrix. Preferably, a perforated and concave sheet connects each channel to an adjacent channel, such that liquid further descends along the concave surfaces of the sheets and the vapor further ascends through the perforations in the sheets. The size and configuration of the small channel heat exchange matrix allows the heat and mass transfer device to be positioned within the separation column, thereby allowing precise control of the local operating conditions within the column and increasing the energy efficiency of the process.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Tran, Thanh Nhon
System: The UNT Digital Library
Process for removing technetium from iron and other metals (open access)

Process for removing technetium from iron and other metals

Technetium is a radioactive product of the nuclear fission process. During reprocessing of spent or partially spent fuel from nuclear reactors, the technetium can be released and contaminate other, otherwise good, metals. A specific example is equipment in gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment cascades which have been used to process fuel which was returned from reactors, so-called reactor returns. These returns contained volatile technetium compounds which contaminated the metals in the equipment. Present regulations require that technetium be removed before the metal can be re-used at non-radioactive sites. Removing the technetium from contaminated metals has two desirable results. First, the large amount of nonradioactive metal produced by the process herein described can be recycled at a much lower cost than virgin metal can be produced. Second, large amounts of radioactively contaminated metal can be reduced to relatively small amounts of radioactive slag and large amounts of essentially uncontaminated metal. A new and improved process for removing technetium from iron and other metals is described in which between 1/10 atom % and 5 atom % of manganese is added to the contaminated metal in order to replace the technetium.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Leitnaker, James M. & Trowbridge, Lee D.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes (open access)

Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes

A process management expert system for a nuclear, chemical or other process is effective following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic …
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Morman, James A.; Wei, Thomas Y.C. & Reifman, Jaques
System: The UNT Digital Library
VO{sub 2} precipitates for self-protected optical surfaces (open access)

VO{sub 2} precipitates for self-protected optical surfaces

A method for forming crystallographically coherent precipitates of vanadium dioxide in the near-surface region of sapphire and the resulting product is disclosed. Ions of vanadium and oxygen are stoichiometrically implanted into a sapphire substrate (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and subsequently annealed to form vanadium dioxide precipitates in the substrate. The embedded VO{sub 2} precipitates, which are three-dimensionally oriented with respect to the crystal axes of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} host lattice, undergo a first-order monoclinic-to-tetragonal (and also semiconducting-to- metallic) phase transition at {minus}77 C. This transformation is accompanied by a significant variation in the optical transmission of the implanted region and results in the formation of an optically active, thermally switchable surface region on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Gea, Laurence A. & Boatner, Lynn A.
System: The UNT Digital Library
One-way implodable tag capsule with hemispherical beaded end cap for LWR fuel manufacturing (open access)

One-way implodable tag capsule with hemispherical beaded end cap for LWR fuel manufacturing

A capsule is described containing a tag gas in a zircaloy body portion having a hemispherical top curved toward the bottom of the body portion. The hemispherical top has a rupturable portion upon exposure to elevated gas pressure and the capsule is positioned within a fuel element in a nuclear reactor.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Gross, Kenny & Lambert, John
System: The UNT Digital Library
Inherently safe helium-3 target canister for tritium production in fission systems (open access)

Inherently safe helium-3 target canister for tritium production in fission systems

A method and apparatus are described for creating tritium via the irradiation of {sup 3}He with thermal neutrons via the {sup 3}He(n,p)T reaction. Nuclear reactors can provide the required neutrons, but the safety of putting {sup 3}He in a reactor has been an issue. The invention reduces or eliminates the reactivity insertion which would be occasioned by a loss of {sup 3}He by providing a canister constructed partially of high neutron-absorbing materials, which will continue to absorb thermal neutrons whether or not the {sup 3}He is still contained within the canister. The canister thus makes the use of the {sup 3}He(n,p)T reaction a viable, safe option for producing tritium within nuclear reactors. In reactors dominated by fast neutrons, the canister further includes a moderator to thermalize fast neutrons.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Houts, Michael G. & James, Brian J.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole (open access)

Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly …
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Bevan, John E. & King, Grant W.
System: The UNT Digital Library
A method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride (open access)

A method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride

A method is described for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700 C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite.
Date: August 11, 1997
Creator: Pereira, Candido
System: The UNT Digital Library
Constant field gradient planar cavity structure (open access)

Constant field gradient planar cavity structure

A cavity structure is described having at least two opposing planar housing members spaced apart to accommodate the passage of a particle beam through the structure between the members. Each of the housing members have a plurality of serially aligned hollows defined therein, and also passages, formed in the members, which interconnect serially adjacent hollows to provide communication between the hollows. The opposing planar housing members are spaced and aligned such that the hollows in one member cooperate with corresponding hollows in the other member to form a plurality of resonant cavities aligned along the particle beam within the cavity structure. To facilitate the obtaining of a constant field gradient within the cavity structure, the passages are configured so as to be incrementally narrower in the direction of travel of the particle beam. In addition, the spacing distance between the opposing housing members is configured to be incrementally smaller in the direction of travel of the beam.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Kang, Yoon W. & Kustom, R.L.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package (open access)

Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package

A method is described for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotonically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Forsberg, Charles W.
System: The UNT Digital Library
High power X-ray welding of metal-matrix composites (open access)

High power X-ray welding of metal-matrix composites

A method for joining metal-matrix composites (MMCs) by using high power x-rays as a volumetric heat source is provided. The method involves directing an x-ray to the weld line between two adjacent MMCs materials to create an irradiated region or melt zone. The x-rays have a power density greater than about 10{sup 4} watts/cm{sup 2} and provide the volumetric heat required to join the MMC materials. Importantly, the reinforcing material of the metal-matrix composites remains uniformly distributed in the melt zone, and the strength of the MMCs are not diminished. In an alternate embodiment, high power x-rays are used to provide the volumetric heat required to weld metal elements, including metal elements comprised of metal alloys. In an alternate embodiment, high power x-rays are used to provide the volumetric heat required to weld metal elements, including metal elements comprised of metal alloys.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Rosenberg, Richard A.; Goeppner, George A.; Noonan, John R.; Farrell, William J. & Ma, Qing
System: The UNT Digital Library
Method for determining aerosol particle size, device for determining aerosol particle size (open access)

Method for determining aerosol particle size, device for determining aerosol particle size

A method for determining the mass median diameter D of particles contained in a fluid is provided wherein the data of the mass of a pre-exposed and then a post-exposed filter is mathematically combined with data concerning the pressure differential across the same filter before and then after exposure to a particle-laden stream. A device for measuring particle size is also provided wherein the device utilizes the above-method for mathematically combining the easily quantifiable data.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Novick, Vincent J.
System: The UNT Digital Library
In-situ stabilization of radioactive zirconium swarf (open access)

In-situ stabilization of radioactive zirconium swarf

The method for treating ignitable cutting swarf in accordance with the present invention involves collecting cutting swarf in a casting mold underwater and injecting a binder mixture comprising vinyl ester styrene into the vessel to fill void volume; and form a mixture comprising swarf and vinyl ester styrene; and curing the mixture. The method is especially useful for stabilizing the ignitable characteristics of radioactive zirconium cutting swarf, and can be used to solidify zirconium swarf, or other ignitable finely divided material, underwater. The process could also be performed out of water with other particulate wastes.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Hess, Clay C.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials (open access)

Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials

A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain-related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3,000 F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high …
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Heubeck, Norman B.
System: The UNT Digital Library
High-strength, creep-resistant molybdenum alloy and process for producing the same (open access)

High-strength, creep-resistant molybdenum alloy and process for producing the same

A wet-doping process for producing an oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS), creep-resistant molybdenum alloy is disclosed. The alloy is made by adding nitrate or acetate salts of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium to molybdenum oxide to produce a slurry, heating the slurry in a hydrogen atmosphere to produce a powder, mixing and cold isostatically pressing the powder, sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere, and thermomechanically processing (swaging, extruding, cold drawing) the product. The ODS molybdenum alloy produced by the process contains 2--4% by volume ({approximately}1--4% by weight) of an oxide of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium. The alloy has high strength and improved creep-resistance at temperatures greater than 0.55T{sub m} of molybdenum.
Date: 1997~
Creator: Bianco, Robert; Buckman, William R., Jr. & Geller, Clint B.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Strain gauge installation tool (open access)

Strain gauge installation tool

A tool and a method for attaching a strain gauge to a test specimen by maintaining alignment of, and applying pressure to, the strain gauge during the bonding of the gauge to the specimen. The tool comprises rigid and compliant pads attached to a spring-loaded clamp. The pads are shaped to conform to the specimen surface to which the gauge is to be bonded. The shape of the pads permits the tool to align itself to the specimen and to maintain alignment of the gauge to the specimen during the bond curing process. A simplified method of attaching a strain gauge is provided by use of the tool.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Conard, Lisa Marie
System: The UNT Digital Library
Direct detection of x-rays for protein crystallography (open access)

Direct detection of x-rays for protein crystallography

An apparatus and method for directly determining the crystalline structure of a protein crystal. The crystal is irradiated by a finely collimated x-ray beam. The interaction o f the x-ray beam with the crystal produces scattered x-rays. These scattered x-rays are detected by means of a large area, thick CCD which is capable of measuring a significant number of scattered x-rays which impact its surface. The CCD is capable of detecting the position of impact of the scattered x-ray on the surface of the CCD and the quantity of scattered x-rays which impact the same cell or pixel. This data is then processed in real-time and the processed data is outputted to produce an image of the structure of the crystal. If this crystal is a protein the molecular structure of the protein can be determined from the data received.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Atac, Muzaffer & McKay, Timothy
System: The UNT Digital Library
An arc fault detection system (open access)

An arc fault detection system

An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn, opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Jha, Kamal N.
System: The UNT Digital Library