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Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification (open access)

Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Coal and Environmental Systems has as its mission to develop advanced gasification-based technologies for affordable, efficient, zero-emission power generation. These advanced power systems, which are expected to produce near-zero pollutants, are an integral part of DOE's Vision 21 Program. DOE has also been developing advanced gasification systems that lower the capital and operating costs of producing syngas for chemical production. A transport reactor has shown potential to be a low-cost syngas producer compared to other gasification systems since its high-throughput-per-unit cross-sectional area reduces capital costs. This work directly supports the Power Systems Development Facility utilizing the KBR transport reactor located at the Southern Company Services Wilsonville, Alabama, site. Over 2800 hours of operation on 11 different coals ranging from bituminous to lignite along with a petroleum coke has been completed to date in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The EERC has established an extensive database on the operation of these various fuels in both air-blown and oxygen-blown modes utilizing a pilot-scale transport reactor gasifier. This database has been useful in determining the effectiveness of design changes on an …
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Swanson, Michael & Laudal, Daniel
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology (open access)

Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of …
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Brown, Craig; Landalv, Ingvar; Stare, Ragnar; Yuan, Jerry; DeMartini, Nikolai & Ashgriz, Nasser
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
The Altus Times (Altus, Okla.), Vol. 109, No. 259, Ed. 1 Monday, March 31, 2008 (open access)

The Altus Times (Altus, Okla.), Vol. 109, No. 259, Ed. 1 Monday, March 31, 2008

Daily newspaper from Altus, Oklahoma that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Bush, Michael
Object Type: Newspaper
System: The Gateway to Oklahoma History
E AREA LOW LEVEL WASTE FACILITY DOE 435.1 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT (open access)

E AREA LOW LEVEL WASTE FACILITY DOE 435.1 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

This Performance Assessment for the Savannah River Site E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility was prepared to meet requirements of Chapter IV of the Department of Energy Order 435.1-1. The Order specifies that a Performance Assessment should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The Order also requires assessments of impacts to water resources and to hypothetical inadvertent intruders for purposes of establishing limits on radionuclides that may be disposed near-surface. According to the Order, calculations of potential doses and releases from the facility should address a 1,000-year period after facility closure. The point of compliance for the performance measures relevant to the all pathways and air pathway performance objective, as well as to the impact on water resources assessment requirement, must correspond to the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste following the assumed end of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure. During the operational and institutional control periods, the point of compliance for the all pathways and air pathway performance measures is the SRS boundary. However, for the water resources impact assessment, the point of compliance remains the …
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Wilhite, E
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Attachments to Pueblo of Laguna Utility Authority Renewable Energy Feasibility Study Report (open access)

Attachments to Pueblo of Laguna Utility Authority Renewable Energy Feasibility Study Report

Attachments to Pueblo of Laguna Renewable Energy Feasibility Study
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Carolyn Stewart, Red Mountain Tribal Energy
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
The Baytown Sun (Baytown, Tex.), Vol. 88, No. 91, Ed. 1 Monday, March 31, 2008 (open access)

The Baytown Sun (Baytown, Tex.), Vol. 88, No. 91, Ed. 1 Monday, March 31, 2008

Daily newspaper from Baytown, Texas that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Clements, Clifford E.
Object Type: Newspaper
System: The Portal to Texas History
Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors (open access)

Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors

This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury …
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Blythe, Gary; Currie, John & DeBerry, David
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Characterization of EGS Fracture Network Lifecycles (open access)

Characterization of EGS Fracture Network Lifecycles

Geothermal energy is relatively clean, and is an important non-hydrocarbon source of energy. It can potentially reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and contribute to reduction in carbon emissions. High-temperature geothermal areas can be used for electricity generation if they contain permeable reservoirs of hot water or steam that can be extracted. The biggest challenge to achieving the full potential of the nation’s resources of this kind is maintaining and creating the fracture networks required for the circulation, heating, and extraction of hot fluids. The fundamental objective of the present research was to understand how fracture networks are created in hydraulic borehole injection experiments, and how they subsequently evolve. When high-pressure fluids are injected into boreholes in geothermal areas, they flow into hot rock at depth inducing thermal cracking and activating critically stressed pre-existing faults. This causes earthquake activity which, if monitored, can provide information on the locations of the cracks formed, their time-development and the type of cracking underway, e.g., whether shear movement on faults occurred or whether cracks opened up. Ultimately it may be possible to monitor the critical earthquake parameters in near-real-time so the information can be used to guide the hydraulic injection while it is in …
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Foulger, Gillian R.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in Mexico City (open access)

Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in Mexico City

This project was one of three collaborating grants designed to understand the atmospheric chemistry and aerosol particle microphysics impacting air quality in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its urban plume. The overall effort, titled MCMA- 2006, focused on: 1) the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles and 2) the measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine particular matter (PM) production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA). MCAM-2006 pursued it goals through three main activities: 1) performance and publication of detailed analyses of extensive MCMA trace gas and fine PM measurements made by the collaborating groups and others during earlier MCMA field campaigns in 2002 and 2003; 2) deployment and utilization of extensive real-time trace gas and fine PM instrumentation at urban and downwind MCMA sites in support of the MAX-Mex/MILAGRO field measurements in March, 2006; and, 3) analyses of the 2006 MCMA data sets leading to further publications that are based on new data as well as insights from analysis and publication of the 2002/2003 field data. Thirteen archival publications were coauthored with other MCMA-2003 participants. Documented findings included a significantly …
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Zavala, Dr. Charles E. Kolb Dr. Douglas R. Worsnop Dr. Manjula R. Canagaratna Dr. Scott C. Herndon Dr. John T. Jayne Dr. W. Berk Knighton Dr. Timothy B. Onasch Dr. Ezra C. Wood Dr. Miguel
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Coal Mine Safety and Health (open access)

Coal Mine Safety and Health

This report gives an overview of Safety and Health Conditions in the Coal Mining industry, regulatory regime, and Legislative activity ( MINER act and S-MINER act)
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Levine, Linda
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Cost-Effective Method for Producing Self Supported Palladium Alloy Membranes for Use in Efficient Production of Coal Derived Hydrogen (open access)

Cost-Effective Method for Producing Self Supported Palladium Alloy Membranes for Use in Efficient Production of Coal Derived Hydrogen

Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}) has utilized its expertise in large-area vacuum deposition methods to conduct research into the fabrication of dense, freestanding Pd-alloy membranes that are 3-5 microns thick and over 100 in{sup 2} in area. The membranes were deposited onto flexible and rigid supports that were subsequently removed and separated using novel techniques developed over the course of the project. Using these methods, the production of novel alloy compositions centered around the Pd-Cu system were developed with the objective of producing a thermally stable, nano-crystalline grain structure with the highest flux recorded as 242 SCFH/ft{sup 2} for a 2 {micro}m thick Pd{sub 53}Cu{sub 47} at 400 C and 20 psig feed pressure which when extrapolated is over twice the 2010 Department of Energy pure H{sub 2} flux target. Several membranes were made with the same permeability, but with different thicknesses and these membranes were highly selective. Researchers at the Colorado School of Mines supported the effort with extensive testing of experimental membranes as well as design and modeling of novel alloy composite structures. IdaTech provided commercial bench testing and analysis of SwRI-manufactured membranes. The completed deliverables for the project include test data on the performance of experimental membranes fabricated …
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Coulter, K.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs (open access)

Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "This report is GAO's sixth annual assessment of selected weapon programs. Since 2000, the Department of Defense (DOD) has roughly doubled its planned investment in new systems from $790 billion to $1.6 trillion in 2007, but acquisition outcomes in terms of cost and schedule have not improved. Total acquisition costs for major defense programs in the fiscal year 2007 portfolio have increased 26 percent from first estimates, compared with 6 percent in 2000. Programs have also often failed to deliver capabilities when promised. DOD's acquisition outcomes appear increasingly suboptimal, a condition that needs to be corrected given the pressures faced by the department from other military and major nondiscretionary government demands. This report provides congressional and DOD decision makers with an independent, knowledge-based assessment of defense programs, identifying potential risks when a program's projected attainment of knowledge diverges from best practices. The programs assessed--most of which are considered major acquisitions by DOD--were selected using several factors: high dollar value, acquisition stage, and congressional interest. This report also highlights overall trends in DOD acquisition outcomes and issues raised by the cumulative experience of individual programs. GAO updates …
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene North Africa from two climate models (open access)

Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene North Africa from two climate models

Using two climate-vegetation model simulations from the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM) and the Community Climate System Model (CCSM, version 2), we investigate vegetation-precipitation feedbacks across North Africa during the mid-Holocene. From mid-Holocene snapshot runs of FOAM and CCSM2, we detect a negative feedback at the annual timescale with our statistical analysis. Using the Monte- Carlo bootstrap method, the annual negative feedback is further confirmed to be significant in both simulations. Additional analysis shows that this negative interaction is partially caused by the competition between evaporation and transpiration in North African grasslands. Furthermore, we find the feedbacks decrease with increasing timescales, and change signs from positive to negative at increasing timescales in FOAM. The proposed mechanism for this sign switch is associated with the different persistent timescales of upper and lower soil water contents, and their interactions with vegetation and atmospheric precipitation.
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Wang, Yi; Notaro, Michael; Liu, Zhengyu; Gallimore, Robert; Levis, Samuel & Kutzbach, John E.
Object Type: Article
System: The UNT Digital Library
Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones (open access)

Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones

Through an extensive literature survey we find that there is very limited amount of work on fault zone hydrology, particularly in the field using borehole testing. The common elements of a fault include a core, and damage zones. The core usually acts as a barrier to the flow across it, whereas the damage zone controls the flow either parallel to the strike or dip of a fault. In most of cases the damage zone isthe one that is controlling the flow in the fault zone and the surroundings. The permeability of damage zone is in the range of two to three orders of magnitude higher than the protolith. The fault core can have permeability up to seven orders of magnitude lower than the damage zone. The fault types (normal, reverse, and strike-slip) by themselves do not appear to be a clear classifier of the hydrology of fault zones. However, there still remains a possibility that other additional geologic attributes and scaling relationships can be used to predict or bracket the range of hydrologic behavior of fault zones. AMT (Audio frequency Magneto Telluric) and seismic reflection techniques are often used to locate faults. Geochemical signatures and temperature distributions are often used …
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi & Wu, Yu-Shu
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
The Disparity Between Retail Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Prices (open access)

The Disparity Between Retail Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Prices

This report provides a brief overview of the differentiating retail gasoline and diesel fuel prices, including the factors influencing the differences.
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L. & Pirog, Robert
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Energy Storage and Distributed Energy Generation Project, Final Project Report (open access)

Energy Storage and Distributed Energy Generation Project, Final Project Report

This report serves as a Final Report under the “Energy Storage and Distribution Energy Generation Project” carried out by the Transportation Energy Center (TEC) at the University of Michigan (UM). An interdisciplinary research team has been working on fundamental and applied research on: -distributed power generation and microgrids, -power electronics, and -advanced energy storage. The long-term objective of the project was to provide a framework for identifying fundamental research solutions to technology challenges of transmission and distribution, with special emphasis on distributed power generation, energy storage, control methodologies, and power electronics for microgrids, and to develop enabling technologies for novel energy storage and harvesting concepts that can be simulated, tested, and scaled up to provide relief for both underserved and overstressed portions of the Nation’s grid. TEC’s research is closely associated with Sections 5.0 and 6.0 of the DOE "Five-year Program Plan for FY2008 to FY2012 for Electric Transmission and Distribution Programs, August 2006.”
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Schwank, Johannes; Mader, Jerry; Chen, Xiaoyin; Mi, Chris; Linic, Suljo; Sastry, Ann Marie et al.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Enhancements to High Temperature In-Pile Thermocouple Performance (open access)

Enhancements to High Temperature In-Pile Thermocouple Performance

A joint University of Idaho (UI) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) University Nuclear Research Initiative (UNERI) was to initiated to extend initial INL efforts to develop doped molybdenum/niobium alloy High Temperature Irradiation Resistant Thermocouples (HTIR-TCs). The overall objective of this UNERI was to develop recommendations for an optimized thermocouple design for high temperature, long duration, in-pile testing by expanding upon results from initial INL efforts. Tasks to quantify the impact of candidate enhancements, such as alternate alloys, alternate geometries, and alternate thermocouple fabrication techniques, on thermocouple performance were completed at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL), a state of the art facility equipped with specialized equipment and trained staff in the area of high temperature instrumentation development and evaluation. Key results of these evaluations, which are documented in this report, are as follows. The doped molybdenum and Nb-1%Zr, which were proposed in the initial INL HTIR-TC design, were found to retain ductility better than the developmental molybdenum-low niobium alloys and the niobium-low molybdenum alloys evaluated. Hence, the performance and lower cost of the commercially available KW-Mo makes a thermocouple containing KW-Mo and Nb-1%Zr the best option at this time. HTIR-TCs containing larger diameter wires offer the potential to increase HTIR-TC …
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Crepeau, John C.; Rempe, J. L.; Daw, J. E.; Knudson, D. L.; Condie, K. G. & Wilkins, S. C.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Environmental Impacts of Airport Operations, Maintenance, and Expansion (open access)

Environmental Impacts of Airport Operations, Maintenance, and Expansion

This report contains an overview of the environmental impacts of airport operations, maintenance, and expansion.
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Luther, Linda
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
The Express-Star (Chickasha, Okla.), Ed. 1 Monday, March 31, 2008 (open access)

The Express-Star (Chickasha, Okla.), Ed. 1 Monday, March 31, 2008

Daily newspaper from Chickasha, Oklahoma that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Wilson, Chris
Object Type: Newspaper
System: The Gateway to Oklahoma History
Federal Contracting: Congressional Action Needed to Address Long-standing Problems with Reporting of Advisory and Assistance Services (open access)

Federal Contracting: Congressional Action Needed to Address Long-standing Problems with Reporting of Advisory and Assistance Services

A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Since 1994, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has been required by law to collect and report obligations for advisory and assistance services (A&AS) in the President's budget. The initial intent for this requirement is not clear, however. The statutory definition of A&AS covers three broad categories of management and professional support services. For many years, GAO and others have reported on inaccuracies in agencies' reporting of A&AS obligations. This report follows up on GAO's past work, pursuant to the fiscal year 2007 Defense Authorization Act. GAO assessed (1) whether reported A&AS obligations are accurate or used for management purposes and (2) the extent to which A&AS contracts are used for recurring services and for longer than 5 years and the contract types and vehicles used. GAO analyzed legislative history and reviewed 334 randomly selected contract files across 10 agencies, the results of which are generalizable to locations visited."
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
The Federal Railroad Administration’s Train Horn Rule (open access)

The Federal Railroad Administration’s Train Horn Rule

None
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Peterman, David Randall
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water (open access)

Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water

This study investigated potential biological effects of produced water contamination derived from occasional surface overflow and possible subsurface intrusion at an oil production site along the shore of Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma. We monitored basic chemistry and acute toxicity to a suite of standard aquatic test species (fathead minnow-Pimephales promelas, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) in produced water and in samples taken from shallow groundwater wells on the site. Toxicity identification evaluations and ion toxicity modeling were used to identify toxic constituents in the samples. Lake sediment at the oil production site and at a reference site were also analyzed for brine intrusion chemically and by testing sediment toxicity using the benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus, and Hyallela azteca. Sediment quality was also assessed with in situ survival and growth studies with H. azteca and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, and by benthic macroinvertebrate community sampling. The produced water was acutely toxic to the aquatic test organisms at concentrations ranging from 1% to 10% of the whole produced water sample. Toxicity identification evaluation and ion toxicity modeling indicated major ion salts and hydrocarbons were the primary mixture toxicants. The standardized test species used in the laboratory bioassays exhibited differences in …
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Bidwell, Joseph; Fisher, Jonathan & Cooper, Naomi
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Financial Audit: Special Counsel Expenditures for the Six Months Ended September 30, 2007 (open access)

Financial Audit: Special Counsel Expenditures for the Six Months Ended September 30, 2007

A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "This report presents the results of our audit of expenditures reported by the Office of Special Counsel Patrick J. Fitzgerald for the 6 months ended September 30, 2007. The independent counsels were required under 28 U.S.C. 596 (c)(1) to prepare a statement of expenditures on a semiannual basis. Under 28 U.S.C. 596 (c)(2 ), we were required to conduct a financial review of a midyear statement and a financial audit of a year-end statement. We satisfied this requirement through semiannual financial audits of the statement of expenditures. For the 6 months ended September 30, 2007, there were no active independent counsels. However, we are required to perform a semiannual financial review of expenditures from the permanent indefinite appropriation used to pay special counsel Fitzgerald's expenses. While not required under the permanent indefinite appropriation to perform a financial audit, we have done so for special counsel Fitzgerald--as we previously performed for independent counsels approved under the expired law."
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library
Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H2 and Sequestration-Ready CO2 (open access)

Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H2 and Sequestration-Ready CO2

In the near future, the nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It is necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact of fossil fuel utilization including greenhouse gas management. GE Global Research (GEGR) investigated an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology with potential to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP technology offers the long-term potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions. GE was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to investigate and develop the UFP technology. Work started on the Phase I program in October 2000 and on the Phase II effort in April 2005. In the UFP technology, coal, water and air are simultaneously converted into (1) hydrogen rich stream that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) CO{sub 2} rich stream for sequestration, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air stream to produce electricity in a gas turbine expander. The process produces near-zero emissions with an estimated efficiency higher than Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) process with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The Phase I R&D …
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Kulkarni, Parag; Guan, Jie; Subia, Raul; Cui, Zhe; Manke, Jeff; Frydman, Arnaldo et al.
Object Type: Report
System: The UNT Digital Library