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Downhole Steam Injector. [Patent Application] (open access)

Downhole Steam Injector. [Patent Application]

An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.
Date: June 3, 1981
Creator: Donaldson, A. B. & Hoke, E.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Free-electron laser using rf-coupled accelerating and decelerating structures (open access)

Free-electron laser using rf-coupled accelerating and decelerating structures

A free electron laser and free electron laser amplifier using beam transport devices for guiding an electron beam to a wiggler of a free electron laser and returning the electron beam to decelerating cavities disposed adjacent to the accelerating cavities of the free electron laser. Rf energy is extracted from the electron beam after it emerges from the wiggler by means of the decelerating cavities which are closely coupled to the accelerating cavities, or by means of a second bore within a single set of cavities. Rf energy extracted from the decelerated electron beam is used to supplement energy provided by an external source, such as a klystron, to thereby enhance overall efficiency of the system.
Date: June 19, 1981
Creator: Brau, C.A.; Swenson, D.A. & Boyd, T.J. Jr.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Hydrodesulfurization and hydrodenitrogenation catalysts obtained from coal mineral matter. [Patent application] (open access)

Hydrodesulfurization and hydrodenitrogenation catalysts obtained from coal mineral matter. [Patent application]

A hydrotreating catalyst is prepared from coal mineral matter obtained by low temperature ashing coals of relatively low bassanite content by the steps of: (a) depositing on the low temperature ash 0.25 to 3 grams of an iron or nickel salt in water per gram of ash and drying a resulting slurry; (b) crushing and sizing a resulting solid; and (c) heating the thus-sized solid powder in hydrogen.
Date: March 26, 1981
Creator: Hwai-der Liu, K. & Hamrin, C.E. Jr.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Thermionic switched self-actuating reactor shutdown system (open access)

Thermionic switched self-actuating reactor shutdown system

A self-actuating reactor shutdown system is described which has a thermionic switched electromagnetic latch arrangement which is responsive to reactor neutron flux changes and to reactor coolant temperature changes. The system is self-actuating in that the sensing thermionic device acts directly to release (scram) the control rod (absorber) without reference or signal from the main reactor plant protective and control systems. To be responsive to both temperature and neutron flux effects, two detectors are used, one responsive to reactor coolant temperatures, and the other responsive to reactor neutron flux increase. The detectors are incorporated into a thermionic diode connected electrically with an electromagnetic mechanism which under normal reactor operating conditions holds the control rod in its ready position (exterior of the reactor core).
Date: June 4, 1981
Creator: Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D. & Brummond, W.A.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Neutron and gamma radiation shielding material, structure, and process of making structure (open access)

Neutron and gamma radiation shielding material, structure, and process of making structure

The present invention is directed to a novel neutron and gamma radiation shielding material consisting of 95 to 97% by weight SiO/sub 2/ and 5 to 3% by weight sodium silicate. In addition, the method of using this composition to provide a continuous neutron and gamma radiation shielding structure is disclosed.
Date: July 6, 1981
Creator: Hondorp, H.L.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Nuclear reactor control apparatus. [FBR] (open access)

Nuclear reactor control apparatus. [FBR]

Nuclear reactor safety rod release apparatus comprises a ring which carries detents normally positioned in an annular recess in outer side of the rod, the ring being held against the lower end of a drive shaft by magnetic force exerted by a solenoid carried by the drive shaft. When the solenoid is de-energized, the detent-carrying ring drops until the detents contact a cam surface associated with the lower end of the drive shaft, at which point the detents are cammed out of the recess in the safety rod to release the rod from the drive shaft. In preferred embodiments of the invention, an additional latch is provided to release a lower portion of a safety rod under conditions that may interfere with movement of the entire rod.
Date: April 16, 1981
Creator: Sridhar, B.N.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Moment-free toroidal magnet background of the invention (open access)

Moment-free toroidal magnet background of the invention

A toroidal magnet is described for confining a high magnetic field for use in fusion reactor research and nuclear particle detection. The magnet includes a series of conductor elements arranged about and fixed at its small major radius portion to the outer surface of a central cylindrical support each conductor element having a geometry such as to maintain the conductor elements in pure tension when a high current flows therein, and a support assembly which redistributes all or part of the tension which would otherwise arise in the small major radius portion of each coil element to the large major radius portion thereof.
Date: March 2, 1981
Creator: unknown
System: The UNT Digital Library
Improved thermal storage module for solar dynamic receivers (open access)

Improved thermal storage module for solar dynamic receivers

This invention relates to a thermal storage apparatus and more particularly to an apparatus for use in conjunction with solar dynamic energy storage systems. The invention is comprised of a thermal energy storage system comprising a germanium phase change material and a graphite container.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Beatty, R. L. & Lauf, R. J.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Nitrogen fixation method and apparatus. [DOE patent application] (open access)

Nitrogen fixation method and apparatus. [DOE patent application]

A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O/sub 2//cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N/sub 2/. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N/sub 2/ at a much quicker rate than unexcited N/sub 2/, greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed.
Date: August 11, 1981
Creator: Chen, H. L.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Acoustical heat-pumping engine (open access)

Acoustical heat-pumping engine

The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium.
Date: August 14, 1981
Creator: Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W. & Migliori, Albert
System: The UNT Digital Library
Method and apparatus for recovering unstable cores (open access)

Method and apparatus for recovering unstable cores

A method and apparatus suitable for stabilizing hydrocarbon cores are given. Such stabilized cores have not previously been obtainable for laboratory study, and such study is believed to be required before the hydrate reserves can become a utilizable resource. The apparatus can be built using commercially available parts and is very simple and safe to operate.
Date: April 1, 1981
Creator: McGuire, P. L. & Barraclough, B. L.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Detonator-activated ball shutter (open access)

Detonator-activated ball shutter

A detonator-activated ball shutter for closing an aperture in about 300 ..mu..seconds is disclosed. The ball shutter containing an aperture through which light, etc., passes, is closed by firing a detonator which propels a projectile for rotating the ball shutter, thereby blocking passage through the aperture.
Date: May 14, 1981
Creator: McWilliams, R. A. & Von Holle, W. G.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Neutral beamline with improved ion-energy recovery (open access)

Neutral beamline with improved ion-energy recovery

A neutral beamline employing direct energy recovery of unneutralized residual ions is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell, and thus improves the overall neutral beamline efficiency. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beam direction in the neutralizer exit region. The ions which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting ions to be loosely coupled.
Date: April 13, 1981
Creator: Kim, J.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Radioactive hot-cell access-hole decontamination machine (open access)

Radioactive hot-cell access-hole decontamination machine

A radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine is disclosed. A mobile housing has an opening large enough to encircle the access hole and has a shielding door, with a door opening and closing mechanism, for uncovering and covering the opening. The housing contains a shaft which has an apparatus for rotating the shaft and a device for independently translating the shaft from the housing through the opening and access hole into the hot cell chamber. A properly sized cylindrical pig containing wire brushes and cloth or other disks, with an arrangement for releasably attaching it to the end of the shaft, circumferentially cleans the access hole wall of radioactive contamination and thereafter detaches from the shaft to fall into the hot cell chamber.
Date: April 6, 1981
Creator: unknown
System: The UNT Digital Library
Continuous chain bit with downhole cycling capability (open access)

Continuous chain bit with downhole cycling capability

A continuous chain bit for hard rock drilling is disclosed which is capable of downhole cycling. A drill head assembly moves axially relative to a support body while the chain on the head assembly is held in position so that the bodily movement of the chain cycles the chain to present new composite links for drilling. A pair of spring fingers on opposite sides of the chain hold the chain against movement. The chain is held in tension by a spring-biased tensioning bar. A head at the working end of the chain supports the working links. The chain is centered by a reversing pawl and piston actuated by the pressure of the drilling mud. Detent pins lock the head assembly with respect to the support body and are also operated by the drilling mud pressure. A restricted nozzle with a divergent outlet sprays drilling mud into the cavity to remove debris. Indication of the centered position of the chain is provided by noting a low pressure reading indicating proper alignment of drilling mud slots on the links with the corresponding feed branches.
Date: March 17, 1981
Creator: Ritter, D. F.; St. Clair, J. A. & Togami, H. K.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Compressor surge counter (open access)

Compressor surge counter

A surge counter for a rotating compressor is provided which detects surging by monitoring the vibration signal from an accelerometer mounted on the shaft bearing of the compressor. The circuit detects a rapid increase in the amplitude envelope of the vibration signal, e.g., 4 dB or greater in less than one second, which is associated with a surge onset and increments a counter. The circuit is rendered nonresponsive for a period of about 5 seconds following the detection which corresponds to the duration of the surge condition. This prevents multiple registration of counts during the surge period due to rapid swings in vibration amplitude during the period.
Date: April 13, 1981
Creator: Castleberry, K.N.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Receiver for solar-energy collector having improved aperture aspect (open access)

Receiver for solar-energy collector having improved aperture aspect

A secondary concentrator for use in receiver systems for linear focusing primary concentrators is provided with reflector wings at each end. The wings increase the capture of light rays reflected from areas adjacent the rim of a primary concentrator, increasing the apparent aperture size of the receiver as viewed from the rim of the primary concentrator. The length, tilt, and curvature of the wing reflectors can be adjusted to provide a receiver having a desired aperture aspect.
Date: March 13, 1981
Creator: McIntire, W.R.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Oil-shale-retorting and combustion system. [DOE patent application] (open access)

Oil-shale-retorting and combustion system. [DOE patent application]

The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from oil shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air. In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less Btu's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system.
Date: August 28, 1981
Creator: Pitrolo, Augustine A.; Mei, Joseph S. & Shang, Jerry Y.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature-stabilization means (open access)

Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature-stabilization means

A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized.
Date: July 29, 1981
Creator: Falco, Charles M.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Nuclear reactor control apparatus (open access)

Nuclear reactor control apparatus

Nuclear reactor core safety rod release apparatus comprises a control rod having a detent notch in the form of an annular peripheral recess at its upper end, a control rod support tube for raising and lowering the control rod under normal conditions, latches pivotally mounted on the control support tube with free ends thereof normally disposed in the recess in the control rod, and cam means for pivoting the latches out of the recess in the control rod when a scram condition occurs. One embodiment of the invention comprises an additonal magnetically-operated latch for releasing the control rod under two different conditions, one involving seismic shock.
Date: August 28, 1981
Creator: Sridhar, B.N.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Minimally refined biomass fuel. [carbohydrate-water-alcohol mixture] (open access)

Minimally refined biomass fuel. [carbohydrate-water-alcohol mixture]

A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water-solubilizes the carbohydrate; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the viscosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.
Date: March 26, 1981
Creator: Pearson, R. K. & Hirschfeld, T. B.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Catalytic-cartridge SO/sub 3/ decomposer (open access)

Catalytic-cartridge SO/sub 3/ decomposer

A catalytic cartridge internally heated is utilized as a SO/sub 3/ decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube being internally heated. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and being internally heated. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety.
Date: May 22, 1981
Creator: Galloway, Terry R.
System: The UNT Digital Library
Method of electrode fabrication and an electrode for metal chloride battery (open access)

Method of electrode fabrication and an electrode for metal chloride battery

A method of fabricating an electrode for use in a metal chloride battery and an electrode are provided. The electrode has relatively larger and more uniform pores than those found in typical electrodes. The fabrication method includes the steps of mixing sodium chloride particles selected from a predetermined size range with metal particles selected from a predetermined size range, and then rigidifying the mixture. The electrode exhibits lower resistivity values of approximately 0.5 {Omega}cm{sup 2} than those resistivity values of approximately 1.0--1.5 {Omega}cm{sup 2} exhibited by currently available electrodes.
Date: October 9, 1990
Creator: Bloom, I.D.; Nelson, P.A. & Vissers, D.R.
System: The UNT Digital Library
High-energy-overcurrent protective device (open access)

High-energy-overcurrent protective device

Electrical loads connected to capitance elements in high voltage direct current systems are protected from damage by capacitance discharge overcurrents by connecting between the capacitance element and the load, a longitudinal inductor comprising a bifilar winding wound about a magnetic core, which forms an incomplete magnetic circuit. A diode is connected across a portion of the bifilar winding which conducts a unidirectional current only. Energy discharged from the capitance element is stored in the inductor and then dissipated in an L-R circuit including the diode and the coil winding. Multiple high voltage circuits having capacitance elements may be connected to loads through bifilar windings all wound about the aforementioned magnetic core.
Date: May 18, 1981
Creator: Praeg, W. F.
System: The UNT Digital Library